June Snow Melt Brings July Arctic Sea Ice Drop-off

It’s a pretty well established theory. If snow over the Northern Hemisphere land and sea ice masses substantially melts during May and June, it can tend to set up a general weather pattern that is conducive to large-scale reductions of the Arctic sea ice come July, August and September.

Arctic Sea Ice in ragged condition during mid July

(Arctic sea ice in very ragged condition by July 19, 2015. A situation born of a continuous Greenland and Central Arctic high pressure ridge setting up warm air build-ups and a sea ice-flushing dipole weather pattern. Image source: LANCE-MODIS.)

Arctic High Pressure, Heat, Collapsing the Sea Ice

And, during June, we saw just this kind of trend emerge. Arctic heatwaves over both the Continental land masses and the Arctic sea ice resulted in a rapid melting of snow cover. Heatwaves fed by massive bulges in the Northern Hemisphere Jet Stream, particularly along the now-famous Ridiculously Resilient Ridge over what is today an amazing (horrific) hot zone of Northeastern Pacific surface waters. El Nino and Positive PDO played their role too, kicking up the hot zones and the ridge to ever greater intensity. An atmospheric and ocean synergy in a 1 C hotter than 1880s context that kept hurling more and more heat into the Arctic environs. Melting more snow and setting the stage for a potential sea ice massacre to come.

By early July there were indications that just such an event may be on the way. A ‘heat dome’ type high pressure system had become well established over the Greenland side of the High Arctic. And for the past three weeks now, this high has remained entrenched. A persistent weather pattern that has allowed more sunlight to hit the sea ice during periods of peak insolation, a pattern that compacts sea ice in the Central Arctic, a pattern that draws storms into the Siberian side of the Arctic to chew away at the ice edge, and a pattern, that overall, drives the ice inexorably toward its Atlantic Ocean flush valve in the Fram Strait.

Arctic Heat

(Hot to record hot conditions have remained in place over the Arctic Ocean throughout July. Image source: NSIDC)

All this extra heat, transport, compaction and storms chewing away at the sea ice edge has finally started to take a very serious toll. As of today, sea ice extent measures had dropped from 7th to 10th lowest on record to 6th to 7th lowest. Area has remained at 4th to 5th lowest on record for the date. Meanwhile volume in the DMI measure has dropped to 2nd lowest on record.

Most charts now are starting to show a steep ‘cliff’ type rate of decline indicative of rapid sea ice collapse. This is particularly true in NSIDC’s Charctic and Cryosphere Today’s sea ice graphs which now show both extent and area lines plunging at rates that will rapidly cross new thresholds if they continue over the coming days.

Sea Ice Concentration in a Rough State

But perhaps most disturbing of all are the indicators that are now showing up in nearly all of the visual concentration monitors. Uni Bremen sea ice concentration continues to look like a massacre on the Pacific side. NSIDC doesn’t appear to be much better. But Cryosphere Today takes the cake for an overall display of sea ice weakness that, on the 19th (updated as the CT measure used earlier ended up being a bit off), looked nearly as bad as on the same day during the record melt year of 2012:

2012 to 2015 Comparison

(Comparison of July 19, 2015 and July 19, 2012 shows 2015 looking nearly as bad as 2012 in the concentration measure. Image source: Cryosphere Today.)

Comparing the left frame image with the MODIS satellite shot at the top of this post, we find confirmation of an overall, very weak sea ice state. Concentration throughout the Arctic appears low. This is especially true on the Beaufort, Chukchi and East Siberian Sea side (see MODIS shot at bottom of post). But extensive weakness and low concentration appears to pervade the entire ice mass. Zooming in on the sea ice surface, we find that some of this low concentration is possible to confirm. The entire Arctic is now full of broken floes, polynya and melt ponds.

Though it is also possible that this extensive melt ponding (also a feature that weakens sea ice) may have kicked the Crysosphere Today concentration sensor a bit into the extreme scale (corrected during the past 24 hours), the 2012-to-2015 comparison above is still apples to apples. And what’s a bit disturbing about this comparison is the fact that much of the concentration in red (55 to 70 percent) in the 2012 measure completely melted out at the ocean surface by mid September of that year. More notably, perhaps, is the fact that the Cryosphere Today concentration measure is, at least in part, confirmed by the US Navy ARCc Concentration model which has now begun to pick up some of the earlier predicted rapid melt in the observational ensemble:

US Navy Concentration

US Navy Concentration Forecast

(Sea ice massacre starting to show up in the US Navy ARCc model daily observations [top frame] and continues to be predicted in the 30 day history and 7 day forecast [bottom frame]. Image source: US Navy.)

Above, we see very low sea ice concentration practically anywhere outside the 80 degree North Latitude line. Most notably, concentration is very thin and rapidly weakening in the Beaufort, Chukchi, East Siberian, and Laptev Seas. And the seven day forecast shows very rapid melt throughout all these regions with the low concentration bulge beginning to invade north of the 80 degree line on the Laptev and ESS side in particularly troubling fashion.

Forecast — Continued Rapid Melt, Some Records May be Threatened

So the question, going forward, is — what next? And it appears that the sea ice is being prepped for continued rapid to accelerating melt over at least the next 7-10 days. Seven day forecasts show the ridge remaining on the Greenland side of the Arctic throughout the period. A position that will continue the current melt, transport and ice weakening regime. Longer range, ten day, ECMWF forecasts find the high shifting more toward a strong ‘heat dome’ located in the Central Arctic with a somewhat weaker high remaining over Greenland — a minor variation of the current ice-weakening state that may slow down ice export but leave compaction, melt ponding, heat build-up, and ice edge weakening due to storms in tact.

Very weak sea ice

(Sea ice throughout the Beaufort, Chukchi, ESS and Laptev is very weak. Can it survive another 10 days of the Greenland/Central Arctic heat dome? Image source: LANCE-MODIS.)

Due to this weather forecast and due to some observations beginning to come in line with ARCc model runs, we cannot rule out a very rapid melt and recession of sea ice along a broad arc running all the way from the Canadian side to East-Central Siberia. The sea ice is visibly very weak there. Perhaps the weakest we’ve ever seen it for this time of year. Ice that will continue to be pulled poleward by the highs that are forecast to remain in place. Ice that will run into weakened, melt pond invaded ice — a paltry respite for its retreat. And ice that will continue to be harried by edge storms and an influx of much hotter than normal air and water from the Pacific Ocean side. It’s a rapid melt risk that calls into effect the potential that some old sea ice area, extent, and volume records may be challenged or broken — probably not 2012’s all time low marks, but more possibly 2011 or 2007.

It’s, overall, a very tenuous situation for sea ice, one that is continuing to be fed by a growing El Nino and still firmly entrenched RRR to the south. So the evolution of sea ice melt over the next few weeks will likely be a critical game-maker for the state of Arctic Sea ice melt and the overall story of Arctic Sea Ice decline in this sad age of human-forced climate change.

UPDATED JULY 21, 2015

Links:

LANCE-MODIS

NSIDC

US Navy

Cryosphere Today

Uni Bremen

June Arctic Heatwave Takes Down Northern Hemisphere Snow Cover

Halfway to 2 C

Arctic Heatwave Pummels Sea Ice in Early July

See Beaufort and Northwest Passage Melt Progress Over at The Arctic Sea Ice Blog

(Please support public, non-special interest based science like the work conducted by the national snow and sea ice monitors, NOAA and NASA. Without their ongoing work, this analysis and commentary would not be possible.)

Leave a comment

75 Comments

  1. Cnawan Fahey

     /  July 20, 2015

    Thanks so much for this post, and others. I’ve been watching the NSIDC and CryosphereToday sites since 2000; it’s been a very sobering experience to watch this unfolding drama/traumatic process. But had not encountered some some of the analysis in found in this article. Thanks again.

    Reply
  2. Loni

     /  July 20, 2015

    And once the Arctic Ice Cap is a mere shadow of its’ former self, then the Arctic sea will look like it’s boiling from the escaping methane.
    We seem to have set the stage for a perfect storm. Incredible.
    I hope you are feeling better, despite the news Robert.

    Reply
    • Loni, it’s not really news to me. I’ve been tracking this since March and spent three days writing this particular post (some of it with a 103 degree fever). So, yeah, I could feel the heat too.

      Methane… Looking worse, but not yet catastrophic.

      Reply
      • Loni

         /  July 20, 2015

        You’re a real Trooper Robert, even more reason to take care of yourself. As I’ve said in the past, you mean much to many, and we’d be the first ones to send you on vacation with a diet of chicken soup.

        Reply
      • Mark from New England

         /  July 20, 2015

        Robert,

        Great update on the sea ice situation. I have a feeling this year will beat out 2012 for minimum extent and volume.

        Be careful with summer ‘flu’ – Lyme Disease often causes a severe flu-like illness when it first attacks – especially if a co-infection like Babesia is present. If you were camping from May – June or out in brushy / grassy areas you may want to consider getting the Western Blot test just to play it safe. You don’t want to get Lyme Disease – take it from me! I recovered, but it was an ordeal.

        Reply
        • Thanks so much for your kind concern, Mark. I’m feeling much, much better. Pretty sure it was a regular bug as I gave it to Cat. The Lyme’s test is a good idea regardless, though. Very sorry to hear you got it. My aunt caught Lyme’s as well and it was a real hit to her health so it’s good to hear you beat it.

          The concentration maps are certainly troubling, which is why I pointed them out in the post. That, the continued steep rate of loss, and the weather pattern put us at increased risk this year. We are still a ways off from 2012, but a week or two more like this and some of the 2007/2011 markers start coming into line.

          PS, this comment somehow ended up displaced. So my apologies for that.

      • Mblanc

         /  July 21, 2015

        Well done for battling through. I monitor the Artic Sea Ice forum, but most of it is too technical for me.

        I noticed Neven recently had a holiday, and it struck me then what a huge commitment a really good, well moderated blog was, especially when times get busy. If it makes a difference, don’t be worried about having the odd quiet week, because chicken soup (and holidays) are important!

        Especially when the situation is looking as dark as it is, and concerns come thick and fast. It’s pretty stressful, and I’m only reading about it!

        Reply
      • Just a suggestion, mineral balance is extremely important, that Himalaya salt does wonders, but immune system, olive leaf extract is magic for flu’s and zinc is akey trace element and it blocks flu virus multiplication in th early phases, just don’t let yourself run down, fresh air and exercise does wonders

        Reply
      • Mark from New England

         /  July 21, 2015

        Robert, No problem with the mix-up. Glad that it sounds like you and Cat had a respiratory flu after all (not that that’s fun😉. I was lucky in that I displayed the bulls-eye rash and therefore started treatment early – but I had a co-infection that wasn’t discovered until later. I’m now recovered and very careful when going into tick infested areas, which, unfortunately, are expanding. Yet another influence of global warming.

        Regarding the sea ice, it’ll be interesting to indeed see how low it gets by mid-September.

        Reply
  3. What will be the minimum sea ice area, extent, volume this year? Extent 4.5, 4 or 3.5?

    Reply
    • Looking at 50 percent probability of extent in the range of 4-5 at current tracking. Volume and area could hit between 2011 and 2012 under current tracking as a 35 percent probability.

      I don’t like using predictions or end ice state models for these forecasts as their numbers are subject to significant wag based on changing weather conditions.

      Reply
    • Steve Goddard just tried to post a comment to this blog and I have happily listed him as SPAM.

      Reply
      • Loni

         /  July 20, 2015

        Robert, just to be clear about the readings of 2012. Wasn’t there a huge storm in the Arctic that year that hit in late August or early September, which also accounted for the diminished sea ice? In other words, the miserable showing for sea ice in 2012 wasn’t all due to warm air and warm water influences as this summers readings are,…….is that right?

        Reply
        • The ice was ‘prepped’ throughout July by a similar dipole pattern to what we see today. All throughout the month, we were at near record low or record low sea ice conditions. The storm came in August and added to the damage of what was already on track to be a record year.

          The substantially weakened and record low ice states for that year contributed to late season losses. To be very clear, the chances of beating 2012 at this time are low. More likely we see a large volume loss and a return to volumes in the range of 2007 to 2011. That said, current concentration measures indicate a weak to very weak sea ice state. Meanwhile, weather forecasts are for very unfavorable conditions for sea ice persistence/resilience to remain in place.

      • Nice work on Goddard, or whoever he is.

        Reply
        • Steve Goddard is a climate change denier funded by the likes of Heartland. He regularly posts misinformation and direct attacks on climate scientists. Today, mercifully, he has shifted his attacks to what I guess would be an easier target — this blog and its informed commenters. I must say that I am glad to draw his fire. It basically validates all the work we’ve done here. And the fact that he leads with ad hominem attack is a clear enough indication that his arguments hold no water.

          Add him in with Watts, Tisdale and the rest of the denier crowd and you get the basic shape of it. Basically, increasingly irrelevant.

      • That’s awesome, Robert! Haha you just have me a much needed laugh after taking in such depressing news. Priceless.

        Reply
      • Greg

         /  July 21, 2015

        It gives me great and true pleasure to know you gate keep this sacred place from zombies🙂

        Reply
        • More than 30 years of pretending they had anything other than the absolute worst of intentions or an utterly failed rational faculty didn’t get us very far, did it? Now, no more dice.

      • Mblanc

         /  July 21, 2015

        Now that is just fantastic. To be personally attacked by one of the deniers-in chief…

        Awesome!

        Reply
      • Good for you Robert.
        SG is pure anti-reality attack drivel — venomous stupidus maximus.

        Reply
      • “Ever since my interview,” — which interview do you refer to?

        Reply
  4. climatehawk1

     /  July 20, 2015

    Tweet scheduled.

    Reply
  5. Reblogged this on msrfuture.

    Reply
  6. labmonkery2

     /  July 20, 2015

    Thanks again for a great article. I spotted this, too.
    http://www.theguardian.com/environment/climate-consensus-97-per-cent/2015/jul/20/oceans-warming-faster-than-climate-models-predicted

    Validation of models, and model under-performance are all issues of the data set. Well, of course.

    Reply
  7. Fantastic reporting, Robert! I hope your health is tracking in the opposite direction of the ice. I think one of the most troubling pieces of info is the sea ice concentration image. Like you point out, all ice that was about 60% or less melted out in 2012. The only thing that survived was the heartiest multi-year ice, and this year very little of that section of ice is above maybe 70% (or so it appears to my naked eye).

    This might not be worse than 2012 yet, but some aspects do seem to be in worse shape. I guess we’ll know for sure in a couple more months, right? We have plenty of other extreme record breaking events to follow in the meantime.

    Reply
    • Feeling much better now, but thanks so much for the kind words. And yeah, that Cryosphere Today concentration map looks pretty bad. So we can probably add that to the list of monitors, including ARCc, that are anti-ice. If one or two more pop out like this, then it may be worth a little more than a raised eyebrow. They did change the filter, though, so it may be more sensitive to picking up the pretty prolific melt ponds out there.

      Happy to give you that chuckle earlier😉.

      Reply
  8. labmonkery2

     /  July 20, 2015

    And a new paper from Hansen on SLR:
    http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2015/07/20/the-worlds-most-famous-climate-scientist-just-outlined-an-alarming-scenario-for-our-planets-future/

    Interesting that even the IPCC estimates are considered to be low-balling the issue. And how can a system such as our climate be linear? Too many inputs, and many we still have yet to recognize. It is equilibrium in cascade.

    Reply
  9. Phil

     /  July 20, 2015

    The relatively low DMI concentration maps results seem to have attracted some attention on the Arctic Sea Ice Forum recently with much of it somewhat negative – e.g. cannot be correct if 2015 seems worse than 2012 at comparable points in time. Of course, the same commentators also have a bigger go at the US navy model as well.

    Will be interesting to see how things pan out. Very difficult to predict what will happen because it depends so much on weather over the next two months and also on the true current state of the sea ice which can be hard to assess from satellite measurements and observations given clouds, etc. In any case, very interesting times ahead.

    Reply
    • The DMI concentration/volume maps are certainly what I would call interesting, especially when we consider all the other interesting concentration maps as well.

      Reply
  10. Andy in San Diego

     /  July 21, 2015

    If you look at the NE corner of Greenland (which has been quite active this melt season) you will see the melt ponds, as well as a nice huge swath of blue ice. Or at least it appears to be ice. I looked at weather maps which didn’t show cloud cover there.

    Blue would imply all seasonal accumulation melted off, and general surface melt underway.
    I’ve stepped back day by day to see if it is a brief anomaly, it appears have started around July 10/11 (~10 days ago).

    Can someone very that it is not clouds?

    http://www.arctic.io/explorer/8/2015-07-20/9-N79.08518-W24.61479

    Reply
  11. Greg

     /  July 21, 2015

    This is a net good, the purchase of America’s second biggest solar company. “We are building the next generatuon of the biggest energy companies on Earth”. This further shows the dinosaur behavior of big oil. If they think they can swoop in and buy a renewable future later they will be overpaying considerably and will fail. Boo hoo. Con Edison and similar get it now and we will all benefit as a result.

    http://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/sunedison-acquiring-vivint-solar

    Reply
    • I think they threw their dice when they invested in fracking and unconventional oil. That’s sucking out a lot of CAPEX and credit. Not to say that they all did, but there’s enough exposure to keep hurting. They’re facing expanding renewables taking market share and renewables + efficiency driving down prices and hurting their bottom line. Yet they still pursue mad ventures like drilling in the Arctic, committing their political resources on these mad climate change denial campaigns, these mad legislative pushes to cut renewables off at the knees.

      They’re doing it because it worked in the past, because they have this Captain Ahab like focus on their particular white whale. They’re sailing toward disaster, far less capable of buying into a renewable future after jettisoning renewable projects back during the mid 2000s, and losing steering as they go.

      Reply
  12. Greg

     /  July 21, 2015

    One more example of the creativity and benefits of the renewable future. Expect to see this kind of stuff growing exponentially in the years ahead.:

    http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/green-tech/news/a16516/indias-ingenious-solar-canals/

    Reply
  13. Reblogged this on jpratt27.

    Reply
  14. Jay M

     /  July 21, 2015

    sadly we need to try to salvage at this point, beyond preventing further damage

    Reply
  15. Matt

     /  July 21, 2015

    Slightly off topic (well more than slightly), an update on El Nino from the BOM (Australia) today…
    “The 2015 El Niño continues to develop. Weakened (or reversed) trade winds have resulted in further warming over much of the tropical Pacific Ocean. All key ENSO ocean monitoring areas have been more than 1 °C above average for 10 successive weeks—two weeks longer than the record in 1997. The eastern tropical Pacific is now at or exceeding +2 °C. In the atmosphere, the past week has seen the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) drop to around −20, the lowest values of the event so far.”
    It seems as if they have the NINO 3.4 anomaly at +1.6C with a heap of the latest massive Kelvin wave yet to be fully factored in??
    Damn, Mr Abbott will have to get onto those pesky BOM scientists before they spout any more of this Commie, United Nations conspiracy stuff🙂

    Reply
    • NOAA has NIÑO 3.4 at +1.7 C now, just a hair shy of cutting into super El Niño range.

      Reply
      • Matt

         /  July 21, 2015

        Thats ironic, looking at the BOM graph it looks like 1.7C (to my eyes anyway) but they report 1.6C??

        Reply
    • They let the coin fall on the other side. No big difference in these monitors. Same basic trend. The kicker is that third Kelvin Wave and the fact that we are now +1.5 C or higher for the month of July.

      Reply
  16. Jeremy

     /  July 21, 2015

    Here’s an eye catching headline in today’s news!

    “Arctic ice ‘grew by a third’ after cool summer in 2013”

    Designed to confuse and obfuscate.
    Full speed ahead with the new road building program.
    Things are getting better!

    http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-33594654

    Reply
    • How myopic of the BBC — taking 2013 completely out of context of overall Arctic and global warming. Much like looking at the year after 1998 and calling it ‘cooling.’ These guys apparently never made it out of second grade level analytical thinking, hmm?

      Reply
      • danabanana

         /  July 21, 2015

        Well, if you were ever in doubt of the BBC being a governments’ mouthpiece (who are in turn in the pockets of the fossil fuel industry) this should clear any doubts. Shame on them and shame on those who work for them.

        Reply
  17. Spike

     /  July 21, 2015

    UK climate risk assessment published, with much that will be of interest to the informed audience on here.

    On a high emissions pathway, what is now a ‘30-year flood’ could become three times more frequent in the Yellow River and Indus basins, and six times more frequent in the Ganges basin, over the course of the century, on a central estimate.

    The probability of the Tigris – Euphrates river basin falling into extreme water shortage could rise significantly after 2030, reaching close to 100% by 2070.

    On a high emissions pathway, the incidence of extreme drought affecting cropland could increase by about 50% in the US and South Asia, double globally, and triple in southern Africa, over the course of the century under central estimates.

    With 1m of global sea level rise, the probability of what is now a ‘100-year flood event’ becomes about 40 times more likely in Shanghai, 200 times more likely in New York, and 1000 times more likely in Kolkata.

    http://www.csap.cam.ac.uk/media/uploads/files/1/climate-change–a-risk-assessment-v9-spreads.pdf

    Reply
    • That’s a rough report out from the UK. their current government, however, is doing everything they can to make matters worse — following Abott back to the 1950s.

      Reply
      • Yup it’s gas and nukes for us, somewhat at variance with public opinion. They are in full Neoliberalus Rex wrecking mode at present – must admit it is dragging my psyche down. The sheer lack of empathy or ecological conscience is dispiriting.

        Reply
        • Try to let “lack of empathy and ecological conscience” inspire you, rather than discourage. I find that mentally dedicating actions to asinine jackasses is satisfying. Maybe you will also?

        • It’s a toxic way to live, Spike. Spiritually and physically. We’ve got your back here though. Hopefully a change of government comes sooner than expected. I see the Scots are still going all out with wind and solar.

  18. I posted this link in the last comments section (I think Bob did too) but it was right before you put up a new post, Robert, so it may not have been noticed by all. Just wanted to re-post because it’s a good read with alarming statistics.

    http://www.wunderground.com/blog/JeffMasters/comment.html?entrynum=3049

    June was the hottest June ever (not breaking news for most of you reading this). Four of the hottest six months ever have occurred in the past six months, and in the ocean nine of the ten hottest months have occurred in the past 13 months. Remarkable statistics. The first half of this year has broken all sorts of records.

    Reply
    • Great report by Dr Masters putting those stunning NOAA numbers into context. And the NOAA numbers were the worst of a bad bunch.

      Reply
  19. Nick Naylor

     /  July 21, 2015

    I agree with just about everything in the article and the comments, but it should be noted that the Navy ARC model has been predicting imminent collapse of the fringes for three weeks, pushing it back on a daily basis as it fails to materialize.
    http://www7320.nrlssc.navy.mil/hycomARC/arctic.html

    On a similar note, the Cryosphere Today image for 2015 just changed very drastically when the code was changed. Just a few days ago, 2015 looked nothing like this.

    All that being said, the current conditions do suggest that we are witnessing the continuing decline of Summer Arctic sea ice.

    Thanks Robert for your continued excellent reporting, and kudos for spamming “Goddard”.

    Reply
    • Good comments Nick. The U.S. Navy model does tend to dislike the ice. Reality has trailed somewhat behind, though not so far that ARCc is entirely non useful. The other concentration measures look rather bad as well.

      Looks to me like we’ll diverge from the 2014 line in a number of measures this week.

      Reply
    • Nick —

      Just sent an update. Apparently the CT graphic was revised, which is a bit of relief as the earlier pic was rather alarming. Provided appropriate revision.

      Reply
  20. Andy in San Diego

     /  July 21, 2015

    Looking at Chartic, it seems the ice pack is responding.

    http://nsidc.org/arcticseaicenews/charctic-interactive-sea-ice-graph/

    Reply
  21. 12volt dan

     /  July 21, 2015

    For anyone interested on the topic of Steven Goddard or more to the point just who is he?. Desmogblog has investigated and found plenty. http://www.desmogblog.com/steven-goddard. Personally I’m glad he’s not infecting this site

    Reply
    • Thanks for the link, Dan.

      For anyone interested in the fossil fuel company connections of our cast of climate change denier characters, Desmogblog has done some excellent investigative reporting on the topic.

      Reply
  22. El Niño continues to strengthen

    All key ENSO ocean monitoring areas have been more than 1 °C above average for 10 successive weeks—two weeks longer than the record in 1997. The eastern tropical Pacific is now at or exceeding +2 °C.

    http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/enso/

    Reply
  23. Greg

     /  July 21, 2015

    The total of 1.69 inches of rainfall for San Diego the first 19 days of this July, mostly in one storm, is more than ALL July totals combined for the last 100 years! I’m wrapping myself around that bell curve shift. Godzilla has awoken.
    A synopsis below:

    http://www.weather.com/safety/floods/news/5-insane-things-california-arizona-flooding

    Reply
  24. Greg

     /  July 21, 2015

    First image of entire earth in full sunlight released from NASA’s discovery mission. A photo taken a thousand years from now should look the same but if you zoom in you will likely notice some disturbing changes:

    Reply
  1. June Snow Melt Brings July Arctic Sea Ice Collapse | 2rhoeas3

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