What 2019’s Hottest June Ever Recorded Says About the Climate Crisis

Hint — It’s accelerating.

*****

To be a climate scientist, to read the science, or to otherwise track today’s unfolding global disaster brought on by fossil fuel burning, is to witness a historical event beyond the scope anything encountered by human civilization.

(July 14th’s record low Arctic sea ice ringed by far northern wildfires and related smoke plumes is just one signal of a rapidly heating global climate. Image source: NASA Worldview.)

Over the past Century, heat trapping pollution has forced the world to warm by about 1.1 degrees Celsius. That’s 1/4 the difference between what humans are used to and an ice age — but on the side of hot. Seas, swollen by this heat and by thawing glaciers, have risen by an average of about 17 centimeters since 1900. Nine trillion tons of ice — the equivalent to 9,000 mountains — have melted from those glaciers into our oceans. Wildfires in the U.S. now burn twice the number of acres as they did 30 years ago. Flood events are more than twice as frequent as during the 1980s. Strong hurricanes have doubled in frequency in the North Atlantic over a similar period. The Arctic’s sea ice is in full retreat.

And if we continue burning fossil fuels, this is just the beginning.

June of 2019 was the hottest June ever recorded in the 139 year global climate record provided by NASA. It was about 1.15 C hotter than 1880s averages and exceeded the past hottest June — 2016 — by a full 0.11 C margin. In climate terms, this was a big jump upward.

(Distribution of hotter and colder than average temperatures shows most of the globe sweltering under greenhouse gas induced heating. In particular, the Arctic has been hit quite hard in the most recent round of extreme temperatures. Image source: NASA GISS.)

Perhaps more importantly to the larger trend, the first half of 2019 was the second hottest first six month period on record. Meanwhile, 2019’s heat comes in the context of the past five years. All were one of the five hottest years ever recorded. And NASA GISS head Dr. Gavin Schmidt’s projection is pointing toward a potential second hottest 2019 as well. Dr. Schmidt stated as much to the Guardian, saying:

“It is clear that 2019 is shaping up to be a top-five year – but depending on what happens it could be second, third or fourth warmest. The warmest year was 2016, which started with a big El Niño, which we didn’t have this year, so a record year is not particularly likely.”

With the global climate system so large and subject to swings (produced mainly by El Nino and La Nina), consecutive hot years are a signal of accelerating global heating. A trend born out by NASA’s global temperature record. In the 1990s, decadal temperatures averaged around 0.61 C above 1880s readings. The 2000s — 0.8 C hotter. The 2010s thus far — 1.08C hotter. In other words, the global heat gain from the 1990s to the 2000s was approximately 0.19 C while the heat gain so far from the 2000s to the 2010s is about 0.28 C. A near doubling of past 0.15 C decadal temperature increases.

(Record hot July may follow record hot June…)

This apparently accelerating global heating is driven by rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Dr Michael E. Mann noted to Mashable today:

“As we have shown in recent work, the record warm streaks we’ve seen in recent years simply cannot be explained without accounting for the profound impact we are having on the planet through the burning of fossil fuels and the resulting increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations.”

Carbon dioxide, which is the primary driver of heat gain, is now at around 411 parts per million37 percent higher than during any period in the last 800,000 years. This level of heat trapping gas is unprecedented in human terms — likely about as high as readings seen during the Middle Miocene 15 million years ago and at least as high as those seen during the Pliocene 3 million years ago.

Methane — another very potent greenhouse gas and the second strongest overall contributor to the climate crisis — is also continuing to rise in concentration. This rise, along with increasing CO2, has been the cause of some anxiety among scientists who monitor the global climate system.

(Rising atmospheric CO2, primarily driven by fossil fuel burning, is the main driver of the global heating crisis we are now experiencing. Image source: NOAA ESRL.)

Together with other trace heat trapping gasses, the global CO2 equivalent heat forcing is around 499 ppm during 2019 (extrapolated from NOAA data). In other words, we’ll be crossing the ominous 500 ppm CO2e threshold very soon.

What all this data means is that we have now turned the ratchet of climate crisis at least once. A set of serious impacts are now locked in. Indeed, we are seeing them. But if we keep burning fossil fuels and turn the ratchet again, it gets much worse from here on out.

(Want to help fight the climate crisis by transitioning to a clean energy vehicle? Get 1,000 free supercharger miles at this link.)

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116 Comments

  1. eleggua

     /  July 16, 2019

    Good to see you back here, Robert.

    July currently on pace to be the hottest month ever recorded on Earth. Hottest July and hottest month ever.

    Problem with the Keeling instruments earlier this month kept them from updating the curve until yesterday.
    Odd drop on the 7th followed by an odd uptick (for this time of year).

    Posted a piece yesterday from Wildfire Today re: explosive peat moss dust. Video on the page.
    Thinking about the explosive peat in relation to peat moss importance.
    https://beta.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/home/should-sustainable-gardeners-use-peat-moss/2017/05/09/1fc746f0-3118-11e7-9534-00e4656c22aa_story.html?outputType=amp
    ‘Is this popular gardening material bad for the planet?’
    May 11, 2017

    “…Virtually all of the peat moss sold in the United States comes from the vast sphagnum moss bogs of Canada. Often mixed with a mineral named perlite, it is highly valued by horticulturists for its ability to retain moisture and oxygen without becoming waterlogged or heavy. It is generally sterile and naturally suppresses a fungal disease that can afflict seedlings, making it a natural choice for seed starting.

    So why would Highland, owner of Organic Mechanics in Modena, Pa., go to considerable trouble to avoid it?

    Peatlands store a third of the world’s soil carbon, and their harvesting and use releases carbon dioxide, the major greenhouse gas driving climate change. The biggest environmental risk from peatlands is if they catch fire, which happened spectacularly in 2015 in Indonesia on land cleared for plantations. Peatland fires account for up to 5 percent of human-caused carbon emissions, according to the United Nations, which last year launched a peatlands conservation initiative.

    For horticultural use, the extraction of peat requires the removal of a bog’s living surface to reach the partially decomposed layers beneath. It grows at a mere sixteenth of an inch a year, and its mining removes layers that take centuries to develop. “Peat is the best vegetative carbon sink we have on the planet,” Highland said. “Why dig it up?”…”

    Another positive feedback loop factor amplifying the crisis.

    Looking forward to more of your posts and analysis here on the blog, your time permitting.

    Liked by 4 people

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  2. Robert, are you familiar with the work of Sergey and Nikita Zimov in Siberia? They have documented permafrost deposits much thicker than had been estimated which could potentially result in much more CO2 and CH4 releases from the Arctic than had been thought possible. Also, they have developed a working hypothesis regarding a relationship between big herbivores (e.g. mammoth, mastodon, bison), trees, and permafrost stability. To summarize, the big herbivores prevent the growth of forests which hold more heat than open grasslands; so, these animals help keep the permafrost from melting. Here’s an article from last year: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/2018/08/news-arctic-permafrost-may-thaw-faster-than-expected/

    Liked by 2 people

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    • Marcel Guldemond

       /  July 17, 2019

      Interesting. I’ve been wondering how much carbon will get trapped in the tree growth as it spreads north in Canada and Siberia. Probably not nearly as much as will come out of the permafrost, but hopefully some.

      Liked by 2 people

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      • Good question, and I’m sure their research will spur other good questions too. This Russian father and son team is causing a stir in the scientific community. Some are questioning their methods and conclusions, while others think their research might be on the right track. It’s intriguing, in any case.

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        • eleggua

           /  July 18, 2019

          “Twenty-five percent of the Northern Hemisphere is permafrost.”

          Grok ^^^that.^^^

          60 Minutes recently went to Siberia and did a piece on the Zimovs and their work.
          Here’s a transcript.

          https://www.cbsnews.com/news/siberia-pleistocene-park-bringing-back-pieces-of-the-ice-age-to-combat-climate-change-60-minutes-2019-07-07/

          ‘Siberia’s Pleistocene Park: Bringing back pieces of the Ice Age to combat climate change
          With Arctic permafrost thawing too quickly, scientists in Siberia are considering drastic measures’
          Jul 07, 2019

          “…Decades ago, an eccentric Russian geophysicist warned that frozen soil, called permafrost, contained enough greenhouse gas itself to pose a threat to the climate if it ever melted. As we first reported in March, science scoffed at Sergey Zimov’s warning but now that the permafrost is collapsing the world is listening. We traveled last summer to the Siberian Arctic to meet Zimov, who has devised a scheme to save the world in a place that he named for the last Ice Age: Pleistocene Park…

          …Years ago, Zimov calculated there is enough carbon in permafrost to threaten the world. But big science gave that idea a cold shoulder, maybe in part because of Zimov himself. He endures Siberian winters when most Russians head south. He enjoys a refreshing vodka from time to time, smokes like a Soviet steel mill, and often just lies down to think.

          Max Holmes: I sometimes describe him as somewhere between a madman and a genius.

          Max Holmes is a leading climate scientist and deputy director of the Woods Hole Research Center in Massachusetts. He told us Zimov’s key discovery was that Siberian permafrost held far more carbon than anyone knew.

          Scott Pelley: When Zimov made this observation, he couldn’t get his papers published in scientific journals.

          Max Holmes: it can take a while to get papers published that fly in the face of conventional wisdom.

          But science warmed to Zimov’s theory and now he’s published dozens of papers in science journals….

          …Scott Pelley: How far below the surface are we right now?

          Nikita Zimov: Right now, we are about ten meters.

          Scott Pelley: So about 30 feet?

          Nikita Zimov: Yeah, yeah, yeah.

          Ten times deeper than originally thought, we found the remains of ice age plants and microbes with Zimov’s chief collaborator, his son, Nikita.

          Nikita Zimov: It’s a ticking carbon bomb, as it called.

          Scott Pelley: A carbon bomb?

          Nikita Zimov: Yeah…

          …The collapse of frozen earth is happening in much of the Arctic, including Alaska. Twenty-five percent of the Northern Hemisphere is permafrost…

          …Scott Pelley: You’re trying to bring the animals back now. How can you do that?

          Sergey Zimov: Physically, you mean? Or morally? What’s– or financially?

          Scott Pelley: All three, but let’s start with physically you need what? Hundreds of thousands, millions of these animals?

          Nikita Zimov: You need to start with something. Second, you need to prove people that the concept work. And to prove that concept work, you– for many things you don’t need millions of animals.

          Scott Pelley: You brought up the moral issue of bringing the animals in here. What do you mean by that? I mean, some people say you’re playing God.

          Sergey Zimov: You know, I think it’s not me playing God. It was our ancestors who was playing God 15,000 years ago. Humans came, and they dropped the number of animals worldwide. And we are just trying to… I don’t know, get it back. …

          …Scott Pelley: Sergey is hoping that you’re going to deliver a mammoth to him. Can you do that?

          George Church: I think he’s hoping that we will deliver an animal that is very similar to the ones that used to roam there. We need cold-resistant elephants. That’s what he would like.

          Church is another scientist who’s made the trek to Zimov’s world. He returned to his renowned genetics lab with dna from mammoth bones.

          George Church: If you look at the 23 genomes of the elephants there’s lots of evidence of lots of interbreeding all over the place among the different so-called species. So, in a way we’re just recreating a hybrid that could easily have existed.

          Scott Pelley: When do you imagine you might be able to pull up a truck and deliver this creature to Pleistocene Park?

          George Church: I would say that probably in five years we’ll know whether we can get this to work for mice, and maybe pigs and elephants. And then if we can get embryos to grow in the laboratory all the way to term, then it’s probably a decade…

          …Scott Pelley: You know, to the untrained eye someone could come away from a meeting with Sergey thinking that he’s a crackpot.

          Max Holmes: Yeah, that’s right, he kind of plays the part.

          Scott Pelley: But as a climate scientist, how do you evaluate him?

          Max Holmes: I think he’s usually right. Certainly he has controversial ideas. And a lot of them I think end up being supported over time.

          Scott Pelley: What do you think of his concept of Pleistocene Park?

          Max Holmes: Fascinating theory. I’m fascinated by the science that can be done to figure out if it’s correct. I’m glad he’s pursuing this. We need to think about solutions. …

          Liked by 3 people

        • Great, thanks! That was a fascinating 60 Minutes segment!

          Like

        • eleggua

           /  July 18, 2019

          Pet Semetary?

          Stewart Brand, creator/founder of The Whole Earth Catalog and the Long Now project, has been pushing mammoth resurrection for several years.
          He’s connected with Sergey Zimov and is involved with the Pleistocene Park project.

          ‘The Mammoth Cometh’
          Feb. 27, 2014

          “…The grazing habits of mammoths, for instance, might encourage the growth of a variety of grasses, which could help to protect the Arctic permafrost from melting — a benefit with global significance, as the Arctic permafrost contains two to three times as much carbon as the world’s rain forests. “We’ve framed it in terms of conservation,” Brand told me. “We’re bringing back the mammoth to restore the steppe in the Arctic. One or two mammoths is not a success. 100,000 mammoths is a success…

          …National Geographic Society hosted a larger conference to debate the scientific and ethical questions raised by the prospect of “de-extinction.” Brand and Phelan invited 36 of the world’s leading genetic engineers and biologists, among them Stanley Temple, a founder of conservation biology; Oliver Ryder, director of the San Diego Zoo’s Frozen Zoo, which stockpiles frozen cells of endangered species; and Sergey Zimov, who has created an experimental preserve in Siberia called Pleistocene Park, which he hopes to populate with woolly mammoths….”

          Liked by 2 people

        • eleggua

           /  July 18, 2019

          ‘Seven reasons we shouldn’t bring extinct animals back to life’
          By Dr. Lynn J. RothschildMarch 15, 2019
          Astrobiologist at NASA’s Ames Research Center

          ‘…De-extincting plants and mammoths are entirely different propositions, and to the latter, I say no.

          As an evolutionary biologist, I think it would be amazing to bring back extinct creatures. You could poke, prod, and study them with today’s arsenal of scientific techniques. But, with the exception of viruses which have been resurrected, that’s not really what de-extinction is about. Instead, de-extinction is the process of taking extinct species’ DNA and inserting it into a similar species to create a hybrid new creature. The much-spoken-about woolly mammoth project is using Asian elephants as the host; the result is actually only about 2% wooly mammoth. Likewise, people from European ancestry are roughly 1-2% Neanderthal, but they don’t walk around claiming to be de-extincted Neanderthal.

          And besides, if we can’t save what we have today, why do we imagine we will do better with some de-extincted laboratory genetic mosaics, made to look like the departed species?

          There are seven categories of reasons why we should not de-extinct animals, from biological to philosophical. I like to think of them as the seven “E”s…

          7. Ethics

          Why do we want to bring these creatures back? Do we feel guilty for our role in making them die off in the first place? Do we feel the need to repay our ancestors’ debt to these species with restorative justice? But who is the justice for? Certainly not for the de-extincted individuals, who will likely go through a period of being malformed, malnourished, and maladjusted when we run out of interest, ending in a likely second extinction. Is it ethical to “atone” for the actions of our ancestors when it may cause a different type of suffering?

          In the end, it comes down to our idea of what “natural” is. Is it natural to have a woolly mammoth on the Siberian steppe, just like they once were? By that reasoning, it should be just as natural to have a sky filled with pterodactyls. Or maybe a sea filled with trilobites. Or maybe an anaerobic earth, which is what our planet was like through much of evolution. Or maybe face the fact that the pristine Earth did not have life here at all. You can’t just pick and choose, and then hide behind the mantle of “natural.”

          Jurassic Park was an awful idea, and Pleistocene Park is no better. So, instead of de-extinction, let’s focus on saving the ecologically important, interesting, and yes—charismatic—creatures we have today. De-extinction is not Plan B.”

          Liked by 2 people

        • eleggua

           /  July 19, 2019

          “Great, thanks! That was a fascinating 60 Minutes segment!”

          You’re welcome, Robert. Thanks for posting the Nat.Geo. article re: the Zimovs.

          Liked by 1 person

      • Spike

         /  August 3, 2019

        Given the current experience, any forests that do grow there look likely to be consumed by fire within a fairly short time frame by Earth standards.

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  3. Reblogged this on The Free.

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  4. Syd Bridges

     /  July 17, 2019

    Thank you for this timely post, Robert. I had not seen the June figures, but they were even worse than I expected. The warming over this last decade bodes ill for the rest of this century, and probably for several thousand years after that. And that does not include the tremendous loss of biodiversity that the Anthropocene Extinction is bringing. The fossil record of the next few million years may well resemble the early Triassic.

    The Arctic is not looking healthy, and even though it may not end up with as little area or extent as 2012, it will certainly end up with poorer ice quality.

    Liked by 4 people

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  5. Suzanne

     /  July 17, 2019

    Glad you are back. Another well done and informative post. We need you now more than ever.

    Liked by 3 people

    Reply
  6. eleggua

     /  July 17, 2019

    Definitely hotter than any other July.

    ‘Heat wave expected to bake two-thirds of nation through weekend
    High temperatures caused by a large dome of high pressure will send temperatures into the 90s and 100s in many parts.’
    July 16, 2019
    https://www.nbcnews.com/news/weather/heat-wave-expected-bake-two-thirds-nation-through-weekend-n1030636

    “…From the Plains to Chicago to New England, the hottest temperatures of the year are expected, thanks to a large dome of high pressure that will send temperatures climbing in the coming days, the weather service said.

    On the East Coast, cities are already taking precautions. In New York City, where cooling stations were set up Wednesday and will remain in place through Sunday, temperatures are forecast to climb to “dangerously high levels by the weekend,” reaching the mid- to upper-90s by Friday. The heat index, which is the measure of how hot it feels when humidity is factored in with air temperature, is forecast to reach close to reach 107 degrees Saturday, the city’s Office of Emergency Management and the Health Department said Tuesday.

    Boston’s mayor Tuesday warned residents to prepare for temperatures between 85 and 97 degrees, with the hottest forecast Saturday. With humidity, it could feel as hot as 105 degrees in Boston, the mayor’s office said.

    In swampy Washington, D.C., heat indices of up to 100 to 115 degrees were forecast for the afternoons of Friday through Sunday, according to the weather service.

    And the Midwest is staring down similar scorching temperatures.Detroit is expected to see an afternoon heat index of up to 105 degrees Friday and Saturday; Chicago is forecast to get much of the same.

    The weather service is warning the Plains of a “major heat wave” that will grip the region starting Wednesday and into the weekend. Parts of Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Missouri, Oklahoma and Illinois are under an excessive heat warning, with highs each afternoon expected to be in the mid- to upper-90s and with a heat index as high as 113 degrees…”

    Liked by 2 people

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  7. eleggua

     /  July 17, 2019

    “We’re in the middle of the makin’s of the master blaster jammin’.”

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  8. Michael James Steicke

     /  July 17, 2019

    RECORD TEMPERATURE for northern most settlement in what has been termed an ‘Arctic Heatwave’ https://dailytimes.com.pk/431888/arctic-heat-wave-hits-worlds-northernmost-settlement/

    Liked by 2 people

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  9. mlp in nc

     /  July 18, 2019

    In spite of an effective vaccine.
    DR Congo Ebola outbreak declared global health emergency. https://www.bbc.com/news/health-49025298

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  10. rhymeswithgoalie

     /  July 18, 2019

    Please please please don’t use “mountains” as a unit of weight or mass. The Appalachians are called “mountains” and they’re just the roots of a mountain range that used to be taller than the Himalayas.

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  11. eleggua

     /  July 18, 2019

    And how exactly do they propose pulling off this feat?!?

    ‘Stabilizing the West Antarctic Ice Sheet by surface mass deposition’
    Science Advances 17 Jul 2019
    https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/5/7/eaaw4132

    “…Here, we show that the (West Antarctic Ice Sheet) may be stabilized through mass deposition in coastal regions around Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers. In our numerical simulations, a minimum of 7400 Gt of additional snowfall stabilizes the flow if applied over a short period of 10 years onto the region (−2 mm year−1 sea level equivalent).
    Mass deposition at a lower rate increases the intervention time and the required total amount of snow. We find that the precise conditions of such an operation are crucial, and potential benefits need to be weighed against environmental hazards, future risks, and enormous technical challenges.”

    7400 Gt = 7,400 gigatons = 74,000,000,000,000 tons of snow.

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    • eleggua

       /  July 18, 2019

      “The visionary thinking we need most of all is what we can do to take our civilization off dependence on fossil fuels.”

      ”Artificial snow’ could save stricken Antarctic ice sheet – study’
      July 17, 2019
      https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-climate-change-antarctic/artificial-snow-could-save-stricken-antarctic-ice-sheet-study-idUKKCN1UC2E1

      “…Levermann and his co-authors used computer models to calculate that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet could be stabilized by depositing a minimum of 7,400 gigatonnes of artificial snow over 10 years around the Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers.

      The paper did not give a cost for such an intervention, which Levermann suggested could be borne by governments.

      Climate scientists cautioned that even a theoretical prospect of artificially shoring up the West Antarctic Ice Sheet should not be used as an excuse to delay emissions cuts, but welcomed the paper for emphasising the region’s importance.

      “Nevertheless, the plan is almost – not quite – up there with building giant glass domes to house our cities or moving people to a terraformed Mars to escape the troubles people inflict on our planet,” said Jeffrey S. Kargel, a senior scientist at the Planetary Science Institute in Tucson, Arizona.

      “The visionary thinking we need most of all is what we can do to take our civilization off dependence on fossil fuels,” said Kargel, who was not involved in the study. ”

      Liked by 1 person

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    • rhymeswithgoalie

       /  July 19, 2019

      The WAIS is being et from underneath by warming oceans.

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      • eleggua

         /  July 19, 2019

        Seems that 74,000,000,000,000 tons of snow would push the ice shelf further down into the warming waters. The plan is to produce the snow using those warming waters.

        ‘Sea level rise: West Antarctic ice collapse may be prevented by snowing ocean water onto it’
        Date: July 17, 2019
        https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/07/190717142709.htm
        Source: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK)
        Summary: Scientists are scrutinizing a daring way of stabilizing the West Antarctic ice sheet: generating trillions of tons of additional snowfall by pumping ocean water onto the glaciers and distributing it with snow canons.

        …A team of researchers from the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK) is now scrutinising a daring way of stabilising the ice sheet: Generating trillions of tons of additional snowfall by pumping ocean water onto the glaciers and distributing it with snow canons. This would mean unprecedented engineering efforts and a substantial environmental hazard in one of the world’s last pristine regions — to prevent long-term sea level rise for some of the world’s most densely populated areas along coastlines from the US to China.

        “The fundamental trade-off is whether we as humanity want to sacrifice Antarctica to safe (sp,) the currently inhabited coastal regions and the cultural heritage that we have built and are building on our shores. It is about global metropolises, from New York to Shanghai, which in the long term will be below sea level if nothing is done” explains Anders Levermann, physicist at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK) and Columbia University and one of the authors of the study. “The West Antarctic Ice Sheet is one of the tipping elements in our climate system. Ice loss is accelerating and might not stop until the West Antarctic ice sheet is practically gone.”

        Unprecedented measures to stabilise the ice sheet

        Warm ocean currents have reached the Amundsen Sea Sector of West Antarctica — a region comprising several glaciers that are prone to instability due to their topographic configuration. Underwater melting of these glaciers triggered their speed-up and retreat. This is already now responsible for the largest ice loss from the continent and provides an accelerating contribution to global sea level rise. In their study, the researchers employ computer simulations to project the dynamic ice loss into the future. They confirm earlier studies suggesting that even strong reduction of greenhouse gas emissions may not prevent the collapse of the West Antarctic ice sheet.

        “So we investigated what could stop a potential collapse in our simulations and increased the snowfall in the destabilised region far beyond observations,” says PIK co-author Johannes Feldmann. “In fact, we find that an awful lot of snow can indeed push the ice sheet back towards a stable regime and stop the instability. In practice, this could be realized by an enormous redisposition of water masses — pumped out of the ocean and snowed onto the ice sheet at a rate of several hundred billion tons per year over a few decades.”…”

        “global metropolises… from New York to Shanghai…will be below sea level”

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  12. wharf rat

     /  July 18, 2019

    Liked by 1 person

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  13. wharf rat

     /  July 18, 2019

    A few years ago, I posted an article about Eunice Foote, who was first to discover that CO2 was a GHG, and wnded with
    “Paid for by the Committee To Repeal and Replace Tyndall with An American Woman

    https://robertscribbler.com/2017/04/21/duration-of-indian-hot-season-nearly-doubles-as-crushing-drought-and-heat-expands-across-the-subcontinent/#comment-113421

    It was “money” well spent.

    The Woman Who Discovered the Cause of Global Warming Was Long Overlooked. Her Story Is a Reminder to Champion All Women Leading on Climate

    Eunice Newton Foote rarely gets the credit she’s due. The American scientist, who was born exactly 200 years ago on Wednesday, was the first woman in climate science. It was back in 1856 that Foote theorized that changes in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere could affect the Earth’s temperature. She broke scientific ground that remains more relevant than ever in 2019, but history overlooked her until just a few years ago.

    https://time.com/5626806/eunice-foote-women-climate-science/

    Liked by 4 people

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  14. mlp in nc

     /  July 19, 2019

    Just found 34.3C (93.74F) sea surface temp in the Persian Gulf near the Strait of Hormuz.
    How long does a human survive swimming in that?

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    • eleggua

       /  July 19, 2019

      Not long.

      ‘Swimming in warm water can take deadly toll on body’
      October 26, 2010
      http://www.cnn.com/2010/HEALTH/10/25/swim.temperature.factors/index.html

      “…U.S. swimmer Fran Crippen died during a 10-kilometer marathon Saturday in the United Arab Emirates. Several of the athletes complained about the water temperature.

      “Water in the 80s feels like a Jacuzzi,” agreed Steven Munatones, who helped write safety rules for FINA, the international governing body for the sport of open-water swimming. He also noted that there was no cloud cover during the UAE competition, “which makes it even more uncomfortable.”

      …In a conversation with his coach 12 hours before the race, Crippen said that the air temperature was 100 degrees and the water was 87 degrees….”

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      • mlp in nc

         /  July 19, 2019

        eleggua
        Appreciate the info. But its all totally, insaneably, stupidily nutso. And the water was 87, not 93 degrees F. This death was clearly predictable and preventable. The sports docs had to be aware of wet bulb.

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        • eleggua

           /  July 20, 2019

          You’re welcome; correct and correct.

          A couple more bits re: warming waters that I’ll post below.

          Like

  15. eleggua

     /  July 19, 2019

    ‘Cement Produces More Pollution Than All the Trucks in the World’
    June 22, 2019
    https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-06-23/green-cement-struggles-to-expand-market-as-pollution-focus-grows

    “…Manufacturing the stone-like building material is responsible for 7% of global carbon dioxide emissions, more than what comes from all the trucks in the world.

    …“There is so far too little demand for sustainable materials,” said Jens Diebold, head of sustainability at LafargeHolcim. “I would love to see more demand from customers for it. There is limited sensitivity for carbon emissions in the construction of a building.”

    …A ton of cement yields at least half a ton of CO2, according to the European Cement Association. That’s more than the average car would produce on a drive from New York to Miami. And a single mixer truck can carry about 13 tons. Hundreds or even thousands of tons go into ordinary office buildings.

    …LafargeHolcim, the second-largest maker by capacity, once launched a carbon-free product. It was more expensive and used a different production process. Customers were “very price sensitive” and didn’t show interest, Diebold said.”

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    • eleggua

       /  July 19, 2019

      Holcim don’t give a damn ’bout anything other than profits.
      LafargeHolcim is a largest manufacturer of building materials like, aggregates, concrete and cement.
      Profit for 2018: $1,379,863,460

      ‘DFW Holcim Cement Plant Seeks to Burn 100% Petroleum Coke’
      July 16, 2019
      https://www.downwindersatrisk.org/2019/07/dfw-holcim-cement-plant-seeks-to-burn-100-petroleum-coke/

      “Holcim Cement’s Midlothian cement plant has requested a permit application to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality to release an additional 2700 tons per year of Carbon Monoxide and burn 100% Petroleum Coke in its Kiln #2. Holcim estimates these change will set of federally-mandated reviews for increases in emissions of Particulate Matter (PM), Nitrogen Oxide (NOx), Sulfur Dioxide (SOx), and Carbon Monoxide (CO).

      …Holcim is one of three very large cement plants (note: all three among the top-10 in size in the US) doing business just south of I-20 in Midlothian in what is the largest concentration of cement manufacturing in the U.S. The other two are TXI and Ash Grove. These are not batch plants. These are where the batch plants get their product. With annual air pollution emissions in the thousands of tons, any one of these kilns would easily be the largest “stationary” industrial source of air pollution in North Texas. Combined, they represent a mega source of air pollution for DFW.

      Review of the numbers in the permit application show the company wants to scrap its current limit of a little over 4000 tons a year for Carbon Monoxide and replace it with a higher 7112 ton per year ceiling. In addition, the difference between actual emissions and proposed changes could result in 100 tons more of Particulate Matter, 260 more tons of smog-forming Nitrogen Oxide, and 1700 additional tons of Sulfur Dioxide.

      Missing from the permit analysis is the impact of the changes on CO2 climate crisis pollution. Petroleum Coke is nothing but carbon. It releases a lot of CO2 when burned. Burning 100% Petroleum Coke at Holcim will significantly increase this kind of air pollution. Cement plants are already a huge source of CO2 worldwide and Texas leads the country in CO2 pollution.

      Overall, it’s the largest requested air pollution increase from any of the three Midlothian kilns in a very long time. And it reveals how badly the snake-bit 20th Century Holcim plant is aging.

      Holcim’s current air pollution levels are already way out of sync with the other two, newer cement plants in Midlothian, and the Holcim facility has had a long troubled history with what its owners claim is a problem with the area limestone – the same patch of limestone the other two plants use. Holcim is already releasing 14 times the amount of four major air pollutants compared to Ash Grove’s 2014 renovated plant, and three times the amount of those same pollutants as TXI. This permit amendment would make the difference even starker…”

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    • eleggua

       /  July 19, 2019

      The air that we grieve.

      ‘Extinction Rebellion activists target London’s biggest concrete supplier – video’
      16 Jul 2019
      https://www.theguardian.com/environment/video/2019/jul/16/extinction-rebellion-activists-target-london-concrete-video

      “Climate emergency protesters have begun a second day of action by blocking and chaining themselves to the entrance of a concrete factory in east London. About 50 activists blocked the gates at London Concrete in Bow to stop workers or vehicles from entering the site on Tuesday morning. The disruption is planned to halt the expansion of the site, which is intended to support the construction of the Silvertown Tunnel”

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  16. eleggua

     /  July 19, 2019

    Peaceful global revolution: right this way!

    ‘My six months with Extinction Rebellion’
    A new BBC Three documentary follows Extinction Rebellion in the run-up to their April protest in London. Presenter Ben Zand describes his time spent with the movement
    19 July 2019

    https://www.bbc.co.uk/bbcthree/article/66227e29-405e-44c1-bd6c-5ac33308cca0

    “”Criminal inaction.”

    That’s how Roger Hallam, the co-founder of the now-notorious Extinction Rebellion, described the British government’s stance on climate change. It was early 2019, and I was with Roger and other members of Extinction Rebellion as they planned the mass protests that would disrupt central London in April…

    …”If thousands of people get arrested, it’ll be a major political event, like the civil rights movement of the 1960s,” Roger said. He had huge, grandiose aims from the start – at one point he said to me, “My role is to persuade the government and the nation that the next generation is going to die unless we make these radical changes.”

    Other members I spoke to have issues with capitalism – they think climate change is a result of the consumerist system we live in. They talk about it very openly. Many people I spoke to are dissatisfied with the current system. They haven’t said what they want instead, though…

    …I felt quite frustrated that their solution was to ‘take over London’ – what difference was that going to make?

    I had to eat my words. They brought central London to a standstill with a mass demonstration, that pink boat, and days of non-violent action – all they did was sit in the road, but suddenly everyone was talking about them. I remember thinking. ‘Wow, they have managed to get complete and utter public attention.’

    …It’s remarkably effective, the amount of publicity you can generate by sitting in a road and blocking traffic. Despite the angry commuters shouting at them, horns beeping as traffic piles up around them, and heavy police presence, they remain strangely calm, which I think also gets them attention. The government might not have been brought down, but parliament has taken notice: it declared a climate emergency in May, in the wake of the April demonstrations.

    For Roger, things are only just beginning. During one of our conversations, he told me, “We’re going into the most dramatic episode in human history.”

    There is real organisation there – they have numerous branches across the country who all coordinate with one another. And they have some pretty intellectual individuals now. Because they’ve managed to attract so many people, there are members from all over the intellectual spectrum – economists, scientists, doctors, people who have worked on mass protests before. It’s a far cry from the disorganised bunch I met last November, with lofty aims but not much idea of how to make them happen…

    …One police officer told me, “We feel quite sad to be arresting these guys, because we do understand where they’re coming from.” At the same time, I felt sympathy with the police, because it was a difficult situation. You have people sitting in the middle of the road, they weren’t being violent, and this is why the tactic is so effective. If the police come and do anything, it looks disproportionate. But if they don’t, they look weak. So the police are in a bind, and tried to handle it as best they could.

    One thing that did concern me was the young people involved in the movement, and whether they’d really thought through the implications of being arrested. Sam was one of nine Extinction Rebellion members arrested in February gluing themselves to the doors of a hotel while an oil industry conference took place inside . I asked him what he thought.

    “I spent 16 hours in a cell. You’re in this tiny metre-wide space, and you go slightly mad,” he told me.

    “I met 16-year-olds who are incredibly dedicated to the cause,” I replied. “But it could have lifelong consequences for them, if they’re arrested.”

    Sam said he thought I was “underestimating their intelligence”. “They’re incredibly educated about the crisis – they’ve had to educate themselves about it because the systems in which they exist don’t.”…

    …Something I kept asking myself was whether Extinction Rebellion should have the answers to the climate issues they’re raising awareness of. At first I thought: ‘These guys should definitely be giving us the answer’. But, as my time with them went on, I started to think ‘well, how could they possibly give us the answer, when it is such a difficult thing?’ Maybe them simply drawing attention to it is going to start making people and companies think about how they affect the environment…”

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  17. eleggua

     /  July 19, 2019

    Summer heatwave. Take care, take precautions if you’re in the danger zone.
    Stay cool, beat the heat.

    “About 195 million people are under watches and warnings as the heat wave begins to reach peak temperatures
    CNN July 19, 2019

    Over the next few days, more than 85% of the lower 48’s population will see temperatures above 90 degrees Fahrenheit, CNN meteorologist Dave Hennen said, and more than half will see temperatures higher than 95 degrees.
    About 195 million people were under a heat watch, warning or advisory Friday morning…

    Experts say the heat wave is only made worse by the ongoing threat of climate change. According to last year’s National Climate Assessment, the number of hot days in the US is increasing.

    Heat waves have also increased in frequency, rising from an average of two per year to six per year in the last five decades. The threat is especially pronounced in the Northeast, where “the frequency, intensity, and duration of heat waves is expected to increase” due to the climate crisis.
    By 2050, the Northeast can expect approximately 650 more deaths each year because of extreme heat, the assessment found.”

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  18. eleggua

     /  July 20, 2019

    ‘Jumbo squid mystery solved’
    Study finds warming waters drove collapse of Mexico’s jumbo squid fishery
    July 18, 2019
    https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/07/190718085314.htm

    “The culprit responsible for the decline of Mexico’s once lucrative jumbo squid fishery has remained a mystery, until now. A new Stanford-led study published in the ICES Journal of Marine Science identifies shifting weather patterns and ocean conditions as among the reasons for the collapse, which spells trouble for the Gulf of California’s marine ecosystems and fishery-dependent economies. It could also be a sign of things to come elsewhere.

    “What is happening with the jumbo squid is indicative of larger changes impacting marine organisms and ecosystems across the northeast Pacific,” said the study’s lead author, Timothy Frawley, who was a Stanford graduate student when he conducted the research. “In many respects these squid, with their unique and adaptive survival strategies, function as sentinels of environmental change.” William Gilly, professor of biology, was senior author of the study.

    Also known as the Humboldt squid, these large, predatory creatures are targets of the world’s biggest invertebrate fishery, commercially fished in Peru, Chile and Baja California. In 2008 the Gulf of California jumbo squid fishery employed over 1,500 fishing vessels and was the fourth largest fishery in all of Mexico. By 2015, it had completely collapsed, and as of yet shows no sign of recovery…”

    Humboldt squid are ~~~big~~~ cephalopods. Posted a comment here several years ago re: decline in size of Humboldt squid off the California coast, prior to the population collapse.
    It maybe that they’ve moved elsewhere, too.

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  19. eleggua

     /  July 20, 2019

    Here’s one would love to hear Robert’s thoughts on:

    ‘Part of the Pacific Ocean is not warming as expected, buy why?]
    by Kevin Krajick, Columbia University
    June 25, 2019
    https://phys.org/news/2019-06-pacific-ocean.html

    “State-of-the-art climate models predict that as a result of human-induced climate change, the surface of the Pacific Ocean should be warming—some parts more, some less, but all warming nonetheless. Indeed, most regions are acting as expected, with one key exception: what scientists call the equatorial cold tongue. This is a strip of relatively cool water stretching along the equator from Peru into the western Pacific, across quarter of the earth’s circumference. It is produced by equatorial trade winds that blow from east to west, piling up warm surface water in the west Pacific, and also pushing surface water away from the equator itself. This makes way for colder waters to well up from the depths, creating the cold tongue.

    Climate models of global warming—computerized simulations of what various parts of the earth are expected to do in reaction to rising greenhouse gases—say that the equatorial cold tongue, along with other regions, should have started warming decades ago, and should still be warming now. But the cold tongue has remained stubbornly cold.

    This troubles many scientists, because the cold tongue plays a key role in global climate. For example, it affects the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, a natural cyclic strengthening and weakening of the trade winds that causes cooling and warming of the eastern Pacific surface every two to seven years. ENSO is the world’s master weather maker; depending on which part of the cycle it is in, its echoes in the atmosphere may bring heavy rains or drought across much of the Americas, east Asia and east Africa. Whether the cold tongue warms will likely affect weather across huge regions. Resulting shifts could affect world food supplies and outbreaks of dangerous weather. But our predictions of those shifts rest on climate models.

    Richard Seager, a climate scientist at Columbia University’s Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, has long suspected that climate models get the cold tongue wrong. In 1997, he and colleagues published a paper suggesting that it had not warmed at all during the 20th century. At the time, most scientists assumed that any discrepancy between real-world temperatures and those predicted by climate models were due to natural variability. We should just wait; eventually the signal of cold tongue warming would emerge. Now, two decades later, with more modern satellite data in hand, real-world observations are veering ever more obviously from the models. It is time to reconsider, says Seager……..”


    “…climate models say sea-surface temperatures should …(include)…pronounced warming of waters along the equator. map (above) shows what the waters are actually doing; the equatorial waters are remaining relatively cool.
    (Seager et al., Nature Climate Change 2019)

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  20. eleggua

     /  July 22, 2019

    Respect existence or expect resistence. Biomimicry: peaceful global revolution continues.
    Update on the latest XR actions.

    ‘The Summer of our Discontent’
    July 22, 2019 by Extinction Rebellion
    https://rebellion.earth/2019/07/22/the-summer-of-our-discontent/

    Bristol
    Last Monday, Bristol rebels took to the streets with this message to highlight how their city will experience extensive flooding unless the government and council Act Now to halt climate breakdown.

    Rebels blockaded Bristol Bridge with a pink boat named ‘Jeanette Kawas’ after the Honduran activist murdered in 1995 for saving 400 species of fauna and flora from developers. A vibrant community was established around the boat, equipped with a Solutions Zone, training tent, kitchen, reading area, family area and campsite…

    Leeds
    In Leeds, a bright yellow boat sailed its way up to Victoria Bridge, laying its anchor down in the middle of the city for the week. It sailed in peace in the spirit of Mia Mascarinas-Green, an environmental lawyer from the Philippines, who was brutally shot two years ago in front of her three children for bringing environmental crimes to light.

    The Philippines is one of the most dangerous places in the world to speak out about environmental crimes. Over 100 environmental rights protectors have been killed there in the last 15 years. Rebels in Leeds stood in solidarity with Mia and hundreds of activists who risk their lives every day to stop the destruction of our planet for profit…

    London
    The Summer Uprising was a beautiful example of the incredible and growing support XR has in the capital. Environmental veterans, fresh-faced campaigners, indigenous Amazonian activists fuelled London’s week of action, along with thousands more from every walk of life. The solidarity with local causes across London was striking, as well as the pressure to make Ecocide law.

    Base camp near Waterloo was dynamic and lively all week. A melting pot of international activists camped out for the week, enthusiastically sharing ideas and comradery. Hundreds visited for training, inspirational speeches, and people’s assemblies. Many fast friendships formed, and commitment to the cause deepened.

    Monday kicked off with the blue boat ‘Polly Higgins’ (named after the Scottish visionary, barrister and author who passed away in April) berthing outside the Royal Courts of Justice. From this platform, electrifying speeches and music set the stage for four more days of action.

    Tuesday saw six arrests at the Bow Concrete Plant at an action motivated by the plant’s incompatibility with the city’s air pollution goals. Later on, the Waterloo Camp was abuzz with training, activities, and planning actions.

    A critical mass bike ride and ‘swarms’ were the focus on Wednesday. Several swarms were held at the Waterloo site with great success and cooperation from the police. Rebels cycled from Waterloo Millennium Green to Hammersmith town hall, meeting with swarmers along the way. Much to the delight of the rebel peloton, Hammersmith Council voted unanimously to declare a climate emergency immediately afterwards.

    Thursday was action-packed. Almost 100 rebels staged a die-in outside the Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy to protest destructive and anti-democratic plans to build a new Edmonton Incinerator. This action came out of a workshop on Tuesday. On the way back to camp, protestors spontaneously voted to swarm Parliament Square, Westminster Bridge and Waterloo.

    Hundreds of rebels then staged a die-in outside City Hall to declare a tax rebellion and call on Londoners to withhold a percentage of their council tax in protest. The Mayor of London was held to account for failing to take action, despite his declaration of a climate and ecological emergency earlier this year. Projects like the Edmonton Incinerator, the Silvertown Tunnel and the Tideway Tunnel have no place in a time of crisis.

    Concurrently, rebels hung banners off the side of Tower Bridge by hand which they pulled off without incident or arrests despite a strong police presence.

    The final day saw rebels in solidarity with Bermondsey mothers, protesting the horrific impact of the Thames Tideway Tunnel as incredible amounts of concrete began to be poured. The morning saw an enormous police presence, indicating the importance of the site…

    After the clean-up, the Waterloo site was given 100% compliance with environmental standards – a testament to rebels’ conscientious conduct. The streets are electric with love and rage: real change feels closer than ever. The tides of our movement are rising.

    Cardiff
    On Monday, a brilliant green boat reading ‘Gwrthryfel yr Haf: Act Now’ made its debut on the streets of Cardiff, dropping anchor in the middle of Castle Street, a key road into the city centre.

    The boat was named ‘Margoth Escobar’, after the Ecuadorian environmentalist and Amazonian indigenous rights defender. Margoth survived an arson attack on her home last year.

    The mood in Cardiff was festive and family-friendly, with plenty of flag-waving, poetry-reading, hula-hooping and musical performances mixed into the outreach and serious message of the protest.

    The rebels held their roadblock for three days, causing some impressive disruption to the city centre and bringing traffic to a standstill for streets around. Emergency services were admitted and every effort was made to cooperate with the police to keep everyone safe. ..

    Glasgow
    The city of Glasgow hosted the Scottish Summer Uprising, and the focal point of this glorious day of protest was a 25ft purple boat moored in a busy intersection of the city centre.

    The day started with a game of cat and mouse between police and rebels over where the secret protest site would actually be. A small group of rebels swarmed a decoy location to attract some of the police vans and ensure the boat had a clear path to Trongate, the boat’s true destination…

    Thank you for reading, and thank you to all the superstar rebels who took part in this enormous collective effort. We see you and are so proud to stand alongside you and fight for climate justice!​

    As we enter this crucial phase in human history, our Rebellion will need money to make sure our message is heard. Anything you can give is appreciated. (LInk to donate at the page above.)

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  21. eleggua

     /  July 22, 2019

    We are nature defending ourself.

    Extinction Rebellion: Five Rules When Occupying a Space

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  22. eleggua

     /  July 22, 2019

    Methane rising.

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  23. eleggua

     /  July 22, 2019

    News from the Land of Enchantment

    ‘New Mexico needs strong methane safeguards’
    June 28, 2019
    https://www.riograndesierraclub.org/new-mexico-needs-strong-methane-safeguards/

    “New Mexico has a methane waste and pollution problem – it’s costing our schools millions in revenue, ruining our air and harming our climate for future generations…

    Each year in New Mexico, oil and gas companies waste $275 million worth of natural gas through venting, flaring and leaks that cost the state more than $40 million in royalties and tax revenue that could be funding public education…

    We applaud Gov. Michelle Lujan Grisham’s commitment to reducing methane pollution as her administration begins the process of drafting regulations, starting with public meetings in July. Effective regulations should require oil and gas companies to cut methane emissions and repair leaks to stop energy waste, stem lost taxpayer revenue and protect our air and climate for future generations.

    Please attend one of these meetings if you can to encourage strong methane safeguards:

    • 1-5 p.m. July 29, San Juan Community College, Farmington
    • 1-5 p.m. July 30, University of New Mexico School of Law, Albuquerque
    • 8:30 a.m.-12:30 p.m. Aug. 7, Nuclear Waste Partnership Building, Carlsbad

    We need to hold oil and gas companies accountable with commonsense methane and air pollution rules that protect air quality and our climate. A New Mexico methane rule is a win-win that reduces pollution, increases education funding and creates jobs in New Mexico’s growing methane-mitigation industry…

    cutting methane waste creates jobs. Enacting a commonsense methane rule will ensure responsible oil and gas development and foster new jobs in the emerging methane mitigation industry. New Mexico is already home to 11 companies that specialize in methane mitigation, and this industry is primed to provide even more highly skilled, family-wage jobs.

    New Mexico is home to two energy-producing regions that are among the nation’s most-polluted.

    Oil and gas operations in New Mexico emit at least 1 million metric tons of climate-warming methane a year and hundreds of thousands of tons of smog-producing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can trigger asthma attacks and worsen other respiratory diseases such as emphysema.

    Rural communities and tribal communities, children and the elderly are especially at risk. A recent analysis made clear that tribal communities often suffer from disproportionately high pollution levels.

    Eddy, Lea, San Juan, Rio Arriba and Chavez Counties – the five New Mexico counties home to 97 percent of the state’s oil and gas wells – are all at risk of violating federal ozone standards of 70 parts per million.

    Oil and gas operations also release hazardous air pollutants such as benzene and toluene that are proven to cause cancer, putting those living closest to oil and gas operations at the greatest risk. More than 130,000 New Mexicans live within a half-mile of oil and gas development.

    Methane is potent greenhouse gas 80 times more powerful than carbon dioxide in the near term. In fact, about 25 percent of the global warming we are experiencing today is attributable to methane pollution.

    Here in New Mexico, oil and gas operations release more than 1 million metric tons of methane every year. That has the same short-term impacts as 22 coal-fired power plants or 28 million automobiles.

    NASA discovered a methane cloud the size of Delaware hovering over the Four Corners region in 2014, the highest concentration of atmospheric methane in the United States.

    According to the EPA, snowpack has been decreasing in New Mexico and the Rocky Mountain West since the 1950s, which could threaten the Rio Grande, Pecos and San Juan rivers and drinking water supplies. The risk of water scarcity and drought is increasing, and in 2018 the entire state of New Mexico was in a drought.

    Climate change will lead to life-threatening heat waves in New Mexico. Extreme heat poses severe health risks, including death. This threat is especially acute for those without access to electricity, including 40 percent of residents in the Navajo Nation.

    What is Gov. Lujan Grisham doing about methane?

    Earlier this year, Gov. Lujan Grisham issued Executive Order 2019-03, directing the Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department and the New Mexico Environment Department to work together to develop rules that would cut gas waste and clean up air quality in rural communities. There is no time to lose. We’re calling on the governor to issue draft rules within her first year in office, and the state has begun the process with public meetings.

    Please sign our petition to let Gov. Lujan Grisham know you support strong methane safeguards. ”

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    • eleggua

       /  July 22, 2019

      ‘Map shows methane emissions throughout New Mexico’
      Mar 29, 2019
      https://www.krqe.com/news/new-mexico/map-shows-methane-emissions-throughout-new-mexico/

      Regulators have created an interactive map showing methane emissions from the oil and natural gas industry across the state of New Mexico. The map shows thousands of oil and gas facilities that are regulated by the Environment Department’s Air Quality Bureau.

      You can also see where production is happening. Environment Secretary James Kenney says the map will help in understanding the effects that oil and gas production has on air quality.

      He says it also shows which producers are working to reduce emissions.

      Click here to view the map.
      https://gis.web.env.nm.gov/oem/?map=methane

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  24. eleggua

     /  July 22, 2019

    In “Waking the Giant: How a changing climate triggers earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanoes”, Bill McGuire briefly mentions concern regarding geologic activity’s impact on nuclear power plants. Another major concern, impact on gas and oil pipelines.

    The recent 7.1 Ridgecrest quake broke at least one pipeline, the result of which is visible from space, as seen in this before-and-after gif.

    ‘A long scar in the earth can be seen where one chunk of land jolts past the other along a fault in the Ridgecrest magnitude 7.1 earthquake of July 5. The dark stain is liquid leaking from a pipeline that had straddled the fault and broke when the fault ruptured.”

    Some info re: the use of geofoam for pipeline protection:

    ‘Protecting pipelines from effects of earthquakes’
    January 29, 2014
    https://csengineermag.com/article/protecting-pipelines-from-effects-of-earthquakes/

    “If an earthquake occurs, high-pressure gas lines are one of the most important items to protect,” said Steven Bartlett, associate professor of civil engineering at the University of Utah. “If they rupture and ignite, you essentially have a large blowtorch, which can be catastrophic.”

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  25. eleggua

     /  July 23, 2019

    ‘The Arctic Is On Fire’
    22 Jul 2019
    https://www.iflscience.com/environment/these-satellite-images-show-just-how-serious-the-artics-wildfire-problem-is/

    Large swathes of the Arctic, including in Alaska, Alberta, Greenland, and Siberia (areas better known for their icy landscapes) are on fire.

    Perre Markuse – a remote sensing and geography enthusiast – has collected satellite images of the blazes ravaging through the uppermost regions of the northern hemisphere, showcasing the scale of the situation.

    States like California and countries like Australia may immediately spring to mind when you think of wildfires but the boreal forests in the Arctic Circle can fall victim to lightning strikes and other firestarters, too. That’s not to say fires of this scale and duration aren’t highly unusual – nor is it common that they start so early in the season.

    The Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) published data earlier this month, revealing these fires were responsible for releasing 55 megatons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere in June alone. To put it into perspective, that is roughly equivalent to Sweden’s total annual emissions and more than the carbon dioxide emitted from Arctic wildfires every June between 2010 and 2018 combined.

    Wildfires in the Arctic Circle are most common in July and August but have been exacerbated this year thanks to June’s excessive heat. The sixth month broke records becoming (globally) the hottest June ever documented.

    And don’t expect things to calm down quite yet – this month is expected to be another scorcher. July 2019 is not only predicted to be the hottest July on record but the hottest month ever. That’s according to climate scientists at Berkely Earth, a non-profit that analyzes land temperature data for climate science.

    Indeed, the last five years have been the hottest on record and it doesn’t look as though 2019 will buck this trend. What’s more, the Arctic appears to be warming at twice the rate as the rest of the world thanks to positive feedback loops like the albedo effect, which accelerate the trend. (The albedo refers to the idea that additional ice melt exposes darker surfaces that absorb more of the Sun’s energy, causing temperatures to rise and thus, more ice to melt in a continuous cycle.)

    Alaska and Siberia have seen some of the heaviest battering from wildfires, with the former registering close to 400 wildfires this year as of July 11 (presumably exceeding this figure by now). That is more than California or, indeed, any state in the US this year, reports NASA. Most are caused by lightning strikes.

    Meanwhile, in Siberia, the flames are threatening a natural feature nicknamed the “mouth of hell”, writes the Siberian Times. The official name is the Batagaika crater but locals regard the (almost) 300-foot-deep crevice a doorway to the underworld. Wildfires could destabilize the ground around the Batagika crater, causing it to collapse so that it gapes even wider.

    Greenland is also experiencing an unusually warm (and dry) summer, leaving the country vulnerable to wildfire. The Greenland ice sheet began melting a month earlier than average, the Washington Post reports, and scientists say we will have to wait and see if it surpasses the record melt of 2012.

    For more of Markuse’s images, find him on Flickr (link in article).”


    “Several wildfires between about 57°N and 70°N in Krasnoyarsk Krai and Sakha Republic, Russia – July 21, 2019 “

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    • eleggua

       /  July 23, 2019

      21 Jul, 22:15
      ‘Wildfires sweep through 140,600 hectares in Russian regions
      Over 2,500 people and 366 units of equipment are involved in extinguishing forest fires’
      https://tass.com/emergencies/1069721

      MOSCOW, July 22. /TASS/. /TASS/. Wildfires are blazing on the territory of over 140,600 hectares in Russian regions, the press service of the Aerial Forest Protection Service said on Monday.

      “As of 12am on 22 July 2019, 133 forest fires are reported on the territory of 140,613 hectares, with active firefighting efforts underway,” the press service said.

      Large forest fires are reported in the Irkutsk (89,076 hectares), Krasnoyarsk (38,930 hectares) and Buryatia (10,600 hectares) regions. Wildfires are also reported in eight other regions.

      Over 2,500 people and 366 units of equipment are involved in extinguishing forest fires.

      The state of emergency over wildfires was declared in the Krasnoyarsk and Irkutsk regions, as well as in parts of the Buryatia and Yakutia regions.”


      The city of Krasnoyarsk, before and now.^^^

      “Sensors installed by activists on Saturday showed a ‘dangerous excess of the maximum permissible concentrations’.”

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      • eleggua

         /  July 23, 2019

        Numbers in Siberia are apparently much higher than 140,600 hectares.

        http://siberiantimes.com/ecology/others/news/major-siberian-cities-choking-from-strong-wildfires/
        ‘Major Siberian cities choking from strong wildfires’
        22 July 2019

        “…The regional government in Krasnoyarsk blamed lightning for starting most fires…

        …According to the Federal Service Avialesokhrana on 21 July, some 492,750 hectares of forests are ablaze in Krasnoyarsk region and only 28,366 are being extinguished.

        Smoke from wildfires is observed in several districts of the Irkutsk region, further to the east.
        Smoke covered Bratsky, Chunsky, Ust-Ilimsky, Nizhneilimsky and Ust-Kut districts.
        As of the morning of 21 July, 86 forest fires are registered in Irkutsk region.
        The total area of burning forests is 217,418 hectares.”

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      • mlp in nc

         /  July 23, 2019

        >

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  26. eleggua

     /  July 24, 2019

    Ugh. Brag published today by the misnomer, heartless Heartland Institute.

    ‘New Mexico Sets State Oil Production Record’
    July 23, 2019
    https://www.heartland.org/news-opinion/news/new-mexico-sets-state-oil-production-record

    “New Mexico produced nearly 246 million barrels of oil in 2018, up more than 40 percent from the previous year, setting a new record for oil production in the state…

    The increased production is made possible by the use of hydraulic fracturing, horizontal drilling, and other technological advances which allow energy companies to access previously untapped shale oil reserves in the Permian Basin, which underlies much of New Mexico and West Texas, OCD reports…

    The oil and gas industry has forecasted production will increase further in New Mexico in 2019…

    The fracking boom in New Mexico has led to unprecedented production and prosperity in the state, says Paul J. Gessing, president of the Rio Grande Foundation.

    “Thanks to fracking, oil production in New Mexico’s Permian Basin has tripled since 2012 and is expected to double again by 2021,” said Gessing. “This has led to massive budget surpluses in New Mexico, creating both direct and indirect jobs.”

    (Kenny Stein, director of policy for the Institute for Energy Research) says the state government may be taking actions that could harm its own and its residents’ pocketbooks.

    “Given that New Mexico remains a relatively poor state, it is unfortunate the state government seems to want to look the oil and gas gift horse in the mouth by pursuing fantasies like 100 percent renewables goals,” said Stein. “Rather than driving up energy costs for its citizens through renewables mandates, the state government should embrace the prosperity sitting in the ground beneath them.” ”

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    • eleggua

       /  July 24, 2019

      You can’t climb out of a hole by digging (and fracking) deeper.

      ‘New Mexico Governor Michelle Lujan Grisham vows to collaborate with oil and gas during boom’
      May 20, 2019
      https://www.currentargus.com/story/news/local/2019/05/20/gov-lujan-grisham-vows-collaborate-oil-and-gas-during-boom/3742158002/

      “…Five months into her tenure as governor of New Mexico, Michelle Lujan Grisham vowed to continue to work with the oil and gas industry even as her administration rolled out and agenda to prioritize renewable energy amid a boom in oil and gas development in the southeast corner of the state…

      Lujan Grisham countered arguments that her administration favored renewable energy over fossil fuels by pointing to a recent announcement that oil giant Exxon Mobil and Permian subsidiary XTO Energy plan to bring more than $64 billion in investments to New Mexico in the next 40 years.

      She said long-term investments from the industry shows that oil and gas is confident Lujan Grisham is supportive of their continued presence in New Mexico among the emerging wind and solar industries…”

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    • eleggua

       /  July 24, 2019

      ““Thanks to fracking, oil production in New Mexico’s Permian Basin has tripled since 2012 and is expected to double again by 2021,” said Gessing.”

      Brilliant.

      ‘Seismic stress map developed by Stanford researchers profiles induced earthquake risk for West Texas, New Mexico’
      ‘A map created by Stanford geophysicists can help predict which parts of West Texas and New Mexico may be at risk of fracking-induced earthquakes. The map could guide oil discovery efforts in the region.’
      February 8, 2018
      https://news.stanford.edu/2018/02/08/seismic-stress-map-profiles-induced-earthquake-risk-west-texas-new-mexico/

      “…The new study, published this month in the journal The Leading Edge, provides a color-coded map of the 75,000-square mile region that identifies those potential oil and gas development sites that would be most likely to trigger an earthquake associated with fluid injection…”

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  27. mlp in nc

     /  July 25, 2019

    Climate is warming faster than it has in the last 2,000 years. Jul 24, 2019. U. of Bern. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/07/190724131624.htm

    The authors of the study in Nature see the explanation for that as being that regional climates in pre-industrial times were primarily influenced by random fluctuations within the climate systems themselves. External factors such as volcanic eruptions or solar activity were not intense enough to cause markedly warm or cold temperatures across the whole world for decades, or even centuries.

    The researchers relied on a database from the international research consortium PAGES, which provides a comprehensive overview of climate data from the last 2,000 years, for their investigation of five pre-industrial climate epochs. In addition to tree rings, it also includes data from ice cores, lake sediments and corals. To really put the results to the test, the team led by Raphael Neukom analyzed these data sets using six different statistical models — more than ever before. This allowed for the calculation of the probability of extremely warm or cold decades and centuries, and not just the calculation of absolute temperatures. The result was that no globally coherent picture emerged during the periods being investigated. “The minimum and maximum temperatures were different in different areas,” says Raphael Neukom. So thermal extremes across the world cannot be inferred from regional temperature phenomena like the oft-mentioned “Medieval Warm Period” in Europe and North America.

    The current warm period is happening across the world for the first time

    The results look very different for recent history. Both studies show that the warmest period of the last 2,000 years was most likely in the 20th century. They also show that this was the case for more than 98 percent of the surface of the earth. This shows — once again — that modern climate change cannot be explained by random fluctuations, but by anthropogenic emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. What we didn’t know until now is that not only average global temperatures in the 20th century are higher than ever before in at least 2,000 years, but also that a warming period is now affecting the whole planet at the same time for the first time. And the speed of global warming has never been as high as it is today.

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  28. eleggua

     /  July 25, 2019

    ‘Heat wave hits France with record-setting temperatures’
    July 24, 2019
    https://www.cbsnews.com/news/heatwave-2019-europe-record-temperatures-france-paris-london-greta-thunberg-2019-07-24/

    “…A host of French cities saw their highest temperatures since records began on Tuesday, with wine capital Bordeaux recording 106 Fahrenheit, beating the previous high of 105 registered in August 2003, weather service Meteo-France said.

    Forecasters predicted new temperature highs in neighbouring countries Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany and the Netherlands, where the mercury could beat the previous record of 101.5 degrees Fahrenheit on Wednesday, according to the Dutch weather office…

    Britain’s Met Office has said there is a chance that the U.K. temperature record of 101.3 degrees Fahrenheit, which was recorded in Faversham, Kent, in August 2004, will also be exceeded on Thursday at the peak of the heat…

    The second heatwave in two months has amplified concerns in Europe that human activity is heating the planet at a dangerous rate.

    The June 26-28 heatwave in France was 7.2 degrees hotter than an equally rare June heatwave would have been in 1900, the World Weather Attribution (WWA) team said this month.

    One study by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology said the deadly, weeks-long heatwave across northern Europe in 2018 would have been statistically impossible without climate change…

    Swedish teenage climate activist Greta Thunberg, who has highlighted the problem of global warming through school strikes, told MPs at French parliament of dire consequences if “business as usual” continued until 2030.

    “We will likely be in a position where we may pass a number of tipping points and we will be unable to undo the irreversible breakdown,” she said on Tuesday during a visit to the French parliament.

    Many conservative figures on the French right criticised the invitation, dismissing her as a “prophetess in shorts” and the “Justin Bieber of ecology” and refused to attend the speech.

    Thunberg accused politicians, business leaders and journalists of failing to communicate the scientific truth as shown in the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report and leaving the burden to children.

    “We become the bad guys who have to tell people these uncomfortable things because no one else wants to, or dares to,” said Thunberg, speaking in English at one of the parliament’s conference rooms.

    “And just for quoting or acting on these numbers, these scientific facts, we receive unimaginable amounts of hate and threats. We are being mocked and lied about by members of parliament and journalists,” she added.”

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  29. eleggua

     /  July 26, 2019

    News Release 8-Jul-2019
    ‘Breaching a ‘carbon threshold’ could lead to mass extinction
    Carbon dioxide emissions may trigger a reflex in the carbon cycle, with devastating consequences, study finds.’
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2019-07/miot-ba070819.php

    “n the brain, when neurons fire off electrical signals to their neighbors, this happens through an “all-or-none” response. The signal only happens once conditions in the cell breach a certain threshold.

    Now an MIT researcher has observed a similar phenomenon in a completely different system: Earth’s carbon cycle.

    Daniel Rothman, professor of geophysics and co-director of the Lorenz Center in MIT’s Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, has found that when the rate at which carbon dioxide enters the oceans pushes past a certain threshold — whether as the result of a sudden burst or a slow, steady influx — the Earth may respond with a runaway cascade of chemical feedbacks, leading to extreme ocean acidification that dramatically amplifies the effects of the original trigger.

    This global reflex causes huge changes in the amount of carbon contained in the Earth’s oceans, and geologists can see evidence of these changes in layers of sediments preserved over hundreds of millions of years.

    Rothman looked through these geologic records and observed that over the last 540 million years, the ocean’s store of carbon changed abruptly, then recovered, dozens of times in a fashion similar to the abrupt nature of a neuron spike. This “excitation” of the carbon cycle occurred most dramatically near the time of four of the five great mass extinctions in Earth’s history.

    Scientists have attributed various triggers to these events, and they have assumed that the changes in ocean carbon that followed were proportional to the initial trigger — for instance, the smaller the trigger, the smaller the environmental fallout.

    But Rothman says that’s not the case. It didn’t matter what initially caused the events; for roughly half the disruptions in his database, once they were set in motion, the rate at which carbon increased was essentially the same. Their characteristic rate is likely a property of the carbon cycle itself — not the triggers, because different triggers would operate at different rates.

    What does this all have to do with our modern-day climate? Today’s oceans are absorbing carbon about an order of magnitude faster than the worst case in the geologic record — the end-Permian extinction. But humans have only been pumping carbon dioxide into the atmosphere for hundreds of years, versus the tens of thousands of years or more that it took for volcanic eruptions or other disturbances to trigger the great environmental disruptions of the past. Might the modern increase of carbon be too brief to excite a major disruption?

    According to Rothman, today we are “at the precipice of excitation,” and if it occurs, the resulting spike — as evidenced through ocean acidification, species die-offs, and more — is likely to be similar to past global catastrophes.

    “Once we’re over the threshold, how we got there may not matter,” says Rothman, who is publishing his results this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. “Once you get over it, you’re dealing with how the Earth works, and it goes on its own ride.”…”

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  30. eleggua

     /  July 26, 2019

    An overstory.


    Tree planting ‘has mind-blowing potential’ to tackle climate crisis
    Research shows a trillion trees could be planted to capture huge amount of carbon dioxide’
    4 Jul 2019
    https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/jul/04/planting-billions-trees-best-tackle-climate-crisis-scientists-canopy-emissions

    “New research estimates that a worldwide planting programme could remove two-thirds of all the emissions that have been pumped into the atmosphere by human activities, a figure the scientists describe as “mind-blowing”.

    The analysis found there are 1.7bn hectares of treeless land on which 1.2tn native tree saplings would naturally grow. That area is about 11% of all land and equivalent to the size of the US and China combined. Tropical areas could have 100% tree cover, while others would be more sparsely covered, meaning that on average about half the area would be under tree canopy.

    The scientists specifically excluded all fields used to grow crops and urban areas from their analysis. But they did include grazing land, on which the researchers say a few trees can also benefit sheep and cattle.
    Let nature heal climate and biodiversity crises, say campaigners
    Read more

    “This new quantitative evaluation shows [forest] restoration isn’t just one of our climate change solutions, it is overwhelmingly the top one,” said Prof Tom Crowther at the Swiss university ETH Zürich, who led the research. “What blows my mind is the scale. I thought restoration would be in the top 10, but it is overwhelmingly more powerful than all of the other climate change solutions proposed.”

    Crowther emphasised that it remains vital to reverse the current trends of rising greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel burning and forest destruction, and bring them down to zero. He said this is needed to stop the climate crisis becoming even worse and because the forest restoration envisaged would take 50-100 years to have its full effect of removing 200bn tonnes of carbon…

    However, some scientists said the estimated amount of carbon that mass tree planting could suck from the air was too high. Prof Simon Lewis, at University College London, said the carbon already in the land before tree planting was not accounted for and that it takes hundreds of years to achieve maximum storage. He pointed to a scenario from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 1.5C report of 57bn tonnes of carbon sequestered by new forests this century.

    Other scientists said avoiding monoculture plantation forests and respecting local and indigenous people were crucial to ensuring reforestation succeeds in cutting carbon and boosting wildlife.

    Earlier research by Crowther’s team calculated that there are currently about 3tn trees in the world, which is about half the number that existed before the rise of human civilisation. “We still have a net loss of about 10bn trees a year,” Crowther said.”

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    • eleggua

       /  July 26, 2019

      Hemp for victory.

      ‘The role of industrial hemp and carbon farming’

      “…We submit that industrial hemp be seriously considered as a crop that can contribute significantly to the Australian Government’s aim to reduce global atmospheric Carbon Dioxide.
      Industrial hemp has been scientifically proven to absorb more CO2 per hectare than any forest or commercial crop and is therefore the ideal carbon sink. In addition, the CO2 is permanently bonded within the fiber that is used for anything from textiles, to paper and as a building material. It is currently being used by BMW in Germany to replace plastics in car construction. It is therefore additional to what would otherwise be grown or sourced from oil. It can be constantly replanted and as such meets permanence criteria as defined by the Kyoto Protoco…

      … One hectare of industrial hemp can absorb 22 tonnes of CO2 per hectare. It is possible to grow to 2 crops per year so absorption is doubled.
      Hemp’s rapid growth (grows to 4 metres in 100 days) makes it one of the fastest CO2-to-biomass conversion tools available, more efficient than agro-forestry…

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      • eleggua

         /  July 26, 2019

        United States Department of Agriculture presents:

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      • nwkilt

         /  July 26, 2019

        One little caveat about hemp, in Southern Oregon they typically use enormous amounts of plastic sheeting and plastic tubing, and despite the desire to reuse them, each year most of the plastic is tilled into the soil or added to the landfill. Bio plastic is a nice idea, however…

        https://mailtribune.com/news/top-stories/jackson-county-is-the-hemp-capital-of-oregon

        David Pierce, a local representative for Dubois Agrinovation of Quebec, has been providing a bio-mulch known as Bio360 from his company to local landowners, though he said only a small fraction of hemp farmers are using it.

        He said he’s been trying to get the word out after seeing hemp fields proliferate in Jackson County.

        “I was shocked and dismayed last year,” he said. “I’m flabbergasted this year.”

        Pierce said the biodegradable plastic is made from organically grown thistle, though it costs more than regular plastic sheeting.

        “It is more expensive, maybe 50% more,” he said.

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        • eleggua

           /  July 26, 2019

          p.s.

          Folks in that area also might want to take a look at the Wildfire Risks map in the article posted below.
          Locations in southern Oregon including several in the counties mentioned in the hemp article rate relatively high on the danger scale.

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        • eleggua

           /  July 27, 2019

          Posted a response prior to the “p.s.” however it fell into the moderation hole.

          In summary, there’s already biodegradable hemp sheeting available as an alternative to plastic, and it supposedly does not cost much more than conventional plastic sheeting. Likely some green rushers know about it, though maybe not any of those contacted by the author of that article.

          Recommend contacting the author of that piece and letting them and any acquaintances in that industry know about this positive alternative.
          Author’s contact info – phone number and email – found at the bottom of the article; included that info in the missing post, which might’ve kicked in the moderation filter.

          https://hempplastic.com/manufacturers/

          “…With our eco friendly HempPropylene, you now have the opportunity to manufacture products with materials far easier on the earth, at a comparable price to their petroleum-based counterparts. Now you can switch to a greener, more eco-friendly option without compromising your bottom line.

          Our biopolymer products are renewable, sustainable and, in some cases, compostable. Our unique process separates and matches different features of the hemp plant to create hemp-based polymers that can be used in virtually every facet of the plastics industry.

          Injection molds
          Thermal forming

          Sheet film
          Blow molding”

          Like

        • nwkilt

           /  July 28, 2019

          eleggua, thank you for that comment regarding hemp plastic manufacturers, I have contacted the author and shared your comment with him.

          Like

        • eleggua

           /  July 30, 2019

          You’re welcome. Thanks for following up on that.

          Winds blowing the smoke from the still-growing Milepost 97 fire mostly to the southeast. All the best to folks in the line of fire and smoke.

          Liked by 1 person

    • eleggua

       /  July 26, 2019

      “…we need to look at forests as superorganisms…”

      Within the overstory, radical solutions to radical problems.

      Definition of overstory (noun):
      1 : the layer of foliage in a forest canopy
      2 : the trees contributing to an overstory

      Eymology of radical (adj.):
      = late 14c., in a medieval philosophical sense, from Late Latin radicalis “of or having roots,” from Latin radix (genitive radicis) “root” (from PIE root *wrād- “branch, root”).
      Meaning “going to the origin, essential” is from 1650s.

      An ‘other’ overstory.

      ‘The Stump That Didn’t Die
      Through underground connections with its neighbors, it somehow stays alive. What does that say about the concept of a tree, or the future of forests?’
      7.25.2019
      https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2019/07/mystery-undead-tree-stump/594673/

      “At some point, a kauri tree fell in a New Zealand forest, and no one noticed. Nor did anyone pay attention when the remnant of its trunk rotted away, leaving behind a stump that’s barely even a stump—a chair-size, hollowed-out half cylinder, sticking up from the middle of a hiking trail, leafless and apparently dead. “It doesn’t look spectacular at all,” says Sebastian Leuzinger of the Auckland University of Technology. “Everyone would have walked past it for years.”

      But when Leuzinger saw the stump, on a walk with fellow botanist Martin Bader, his head turned. He saw that even though it had no leaves, stems, or greenery of any kind, it did still contain living tissue—and when he knocked on the stump, it sounded different from deadwood. All appearances to the contrary, it’s still alive. How?

      Leuzinger and Bader eventually showed that the stump is connected to one or more of the kauri trees around it, probably via its roots. They are hydraulically coupled: The water flowing through the full-size trees also drives water through the stump, keeping it alive. It will never green again, never make cones or seeds or pollen, never unfall, never reclaim its towering verticality. But at least for now, it’s not going to die, either.

      How best to think about the living stump? Is it a vampiric parasite that sustains its undead existence by leeching the supplies of its fellow trees? Is it a beneficial partner that extends the root network of those other kauri in exchange for water? Is it even an individual entity anymore, or just a part of its neighbors? Without chlorophyll to harness the sun’s energy and make its own food, is it really much of a plant, or something more like a fungus or an animal—an organism that gets its nutrients from other living things? “I think this is really exciting,” says Franciska de Vries of the University of Manchester. “It poses so many questions.”

      Underground, trees are intimately connected. The fungi on their roots can wire adjacent individuals to one another and ferry nutrients between them, creating what ecologists have come to call a “wood-wide web.” The roots themselves can also graft directly onto one another—a phenomenon that’s been documented in about 150 species, but is still mysterious. Why do it? Researchers have suggested that these natural grafts stabilize the trees, or allow them to share resources during times of hardship…

      “That really changes our view on forest mortality,” Leuzinger adds. If living, intact trees regularly share water through connected supplies, “we need to look at forests as superorganisms,” he says.”

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    • eleggua

       /  July 26, 2019

      Superorganism.

      “The Pando Clone is an aspen stand encompassing approximately 106 acres on the Fishlake National Forest. This clone (based on DNA testing) is thought to be the largest organism in the world. ”

      https://www.nationalforests.org/blog/tree-profile-aspen-so-much-more-than-a-tree

      “One aspen tree is actually only a small part of a larger organism. A stand or group of aspen trees is considered a singular organism with the main life force underground in the extensive root system. Before a single aspen trunk appears above the surface, the root system may lie dormant for many years until the conditions are just right, including sufficient sunlight. In a single stand, each tree is a genetic replicate of the other, hence the name a “clone” of aspens used to describe a stand.

      Older than the massive Sequoias or the biblical Bristlecone Pines, the oldest known aspen clone has lived more than 80,000 years on Utah’s Fishlake National Forest. Not only is the clone the oldest living organism, weighing in at an estimated 6,600 tons, it is also the heaviest. Even if the trees of a stand are wiped out, it is very difficult to permanently extinguish an aspen’s root system due to the rapid rate in which it reproduces. “

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  31. eleggua

     /  July 26, 2019

    For folks in western US states, useful and potentially valuable map and search field found at the bottom of this excellent, long article.

    ‘Where will the West’s next deadly wildfire strike? The risks are everywhere
    Of small communities across 11 states, more than 500 have a higher wildfire hazard potential than Paradise, Calif.’
    July 24, 2019
    https://www.azcentral.com/in-depth/news/local/arizona-wildfires/2019/07/22/wildfire-risks-more-than-500-spots-have-greater-hazard-than-paradise/1434502001/

    “An Arizona Republic and USA TODAY analysis measured the wildfire hazard potential for about 5,000 communities in 11 Western states.
    Explore the vulnerabilities of each community here. You can search in the field below, or explore on the map.”

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  32. wharf rat

     /  July 26, 2019

    Hawaii’s Plan to Use Dispatchable Renewables and Batteries to Replace Dirty Power Plants
    An in-depth look at Hawaiian Electric’s latest move toward a future grid that doesn’t rely on huge spinning generators

    Last week, HECO filed a plan with state regulators that represents its first steps toward a future grid that doesn’t rely on these massive spinning generators.

    By 2024, it hopes to replace two set-to-close power plants — the 203-megawatt AES Hawaii coal-fired power plant on Oahu, and the 212-megawatt Kahului oil-fired power plant on Maui — with a mix of energy storage, grid services, and “Renewable Dispatchable Generation power purchase agreements.

    https://www.greentechmedia.com/squared/dispatches-from-the-grid-edge/hawaiian-electrics-plan-for-dispatchable-renewables-batteries-and-grid-serv

    ==

    NextEra Energy Resources seems intent on proving that triple hybrid plants can work in the U.S. market.

    The powerhouse renewables developer contracted this week with Oklahoma-based Western Farmers Electric Cooperative to build the largest proposed solar plus wind plus storage plant in the U.S. The Skeleton Creek facility, slated for completion by the close of 2023, will include:
    250 megawatts of wind capacity, which will arrive first, before the end of 2019.
    250 megawatts of solar power
    200 megawatts and 800 megawatt-hours of battery storage
    This outranks a project NextEra finalized with Portland General Electric in February, which will be online by the end of 2021. That deal includes 300 megawatts wind, 50 megawatts solar and 30 megawatts/ 120 megawatt-hours storage.

    https://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/nextera-inks-even-bigger-windsolarstorage-deal-with-oklahoma-cooperative#gs.s6su06

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  33. Vic

     /  July 27, 2019

    “The amount of [carbon dioxide] emitted from Arctic circle fires in June 2019 is larger than all of the CO2 released from Arctic circle fires in the same month from 2010 through to 2018 put together.”

    https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/jul/26/unprecedented-more-than-100-wildfires-burning-in-the-arctic-in-worst-ever-season

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    • eleggua

       /  July 27, 2019

      Linked directly below that article (thanks for posting that one), evidence that Extinction Rebellion in the UK is raising awareness of urgency.

      https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/jul/26/climate-more-pressing-than-brexit-say-71-of-britons-poll
      26 Jul 2019
      ‘Climate more pressing than Brexit, say 71% of Britons – poll
      Christian Aid poll finds climate emergency should be Boris Johnson’s top priority’

      “…Women and young people are more likely to say that action over climate change is a more pressing priority than issues around Brexit.

      The ComRes survey, commissioned by Christian Aid, found that 71% of the UK public agreed that climate change would be more important than the country’s departure from the EU in the long term. Six out of 10 adults said the government was not doing enough to prioritise the climate crisis.

      Two-thirds of those surveyed agreed that Johnson should put the issue at the top of his agenda. In his inaugural speech as prime minister outside No 10 on Wednesday, (Boris) Johnson mentioned the environment briefly. He said Britain was “leading the world in the battery technology that will help cut CO2 and tackle climate change and produce green jobs for the next generation”.”

      You left the motor running, Bore Us.

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    • eleggua

       /  July 27, 2019

      From ^the Guardian^ article, there’s that term again: “Unprecedented”.

      “The World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the United Nations’ weather and climate monitoring service, has called the Arctic fires “unprecedented”.”

      More than two million hectares on fire in Siberia, with turndra on fire destryoing the permafrost’
      26 July 2019
      https://siberiantimes.com/ecology/others/news/more-than-two-million-hectares-on-fire-in-siberia-with-turndra-on-fire-destryoing-the-permafrost/

      “…Some 784,931 hectares of wildfires are raging on permafrost zones including the Arctic in Yakutia – officially Sakha Republic – and the Khanty-Mansi autonomous region, causing possibly irreparable damage to the tundra.

      Other infernos are sweeping through boreal forests which are known as the lungs of the Northern Hemisphere.

      Here, centuries-old cedar, pine and larch trees are turn to ashes.

      In many – indeed most – areas the authorities acknowledge they will not be able to extinguish the fires because the areas are too remote or do not threaten people or strategic facilities.

      The cost of putting them out is seen as too great.

      Eventually rain and snow will do the job, yet there is concern at the pollution pumped into the atmosphere and the loss of vast forest tracts.

      The latest data for 25 July on wildfires shows:

      1. Krasnoyarsk region – 906,344 hectares burning, of which 24,178 ha will be extinguished
      2. Yakutia (Sakha Republic) – 784,909 hectares, with 865 ha to be extinguished.
      3. Irkutsk region – 499,443 hectares, with 120,262 ha due to be extinguished.
      4. Buryatia – 45,097 hectares, with 992 ha to be extinguished.
      5. Khanty-Mansi Autonomous region – 22 hectares, all to be extinguished
      6. Transbaikal region – 17 hectares, with 1 ha to be extinguished
      7. Tyumen region – 1 hectare which is due to be extinguished.

      The area on fire – according to official statistics – is 2.24 million hectares, larger than the country of Wales.

      Smoke is reaching both Novosibirsk and Ekaterinburg, Russian’s third and fourth cities by population.
      Novosibirsk along with Tomsk and Kemerovo are covered with the smoke for the fifth day in succession. In the later part of this week, the situation worsened.
      Cardiologist at Novosibirsk City Hospital No. 1, Irina Pankova, said the number of people complaining of headaches, high blood pressure and problems with breathing, has significantly risen.

      In Krasnoyarsk city, also hit by smoke, the situation is much worse. ..

      The head of the Situation Centre of Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring (Rosgidromet), Anatoly Tsygankov, said the fire danger remains acute in the north of Irkutsk region and south of Yakutia up to 28 July.

      Officially the cause of fires is scorching 30C temperatures, strong winds, and heat lightning.

      Meanwhile, Russia’s federal Natural Resources Ministry wrote that the wildfires in the Krasnoyarsk region were caused by a combination of human actions (35.8% of all cases), flames spreading from other regions (34.4%), and lightning (25.4%)….”


      Wildfires are burning in 11 regions across the Russian Arctic.
      Credit: NASA Earth Observatory image by Joshua Stevens, using VIIRS data from NASA EOSDIS/LANCE and GIBS/Worldview, and the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership.

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  34. eleggua

     /  July 27, 2019

    Spreading forest fire in Southern Oregon affecting air quality there and in Northern California.
    This fire’s in a risk area identified in the Arizona Republic and USA TODAY analysis posted in a comment up above.

    The fire is now 25 miles north of Grants Pass, Oregon. Smoke’s currently blowing southeast.

    ‘Milepost 97 Fire grows to ‘just under 9,000 acres’ ‘
    Jul 27, 2019
    https://www.kezi.com/content/news/Milepost-97-Fire-grows-to-just-under-9000-acres-513288511.html

    “…DFPA officials said the fire, which is burning one mile southeast of Canyonville near Interstate 5 southbound, could take weeks to contain and control. Canyonville is not immediately threatened by the fire, as it is moving south and southwest away from the city.

    The fire is burning through private industrial timberlands, O&C Lands managed by the Bureau of Land Management and lands held in trust by the Bureau of Indian Affairs for the Cow Creek Tribe…”

    https://i1.wp.com/wildfiretoday.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/AirQ_PurpleAir_647amCDT_7-27.jpg?ssl=1

    Some of the cities in Oregon affected are Grants Pass, Medford, and Ashland.
    In California, Yreka, Weed, Mt. Shasta, and Redding.

    Like

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    • eleggua

       /  July 27, 2019

      Forecast for the distribution of smoke as of 10 a.m. PDT, July 27, 2019.

      Like

      Reply
  35. mlp in nc

     /  July 29, 2019

    A(nother) promising technology. But nothing is perfect. Production facilities will have to deal with the toxicities both of cyanotoxins and the butanol itself. That might be difficult.

    Solar energy becomes biofuel without solar cells. Jul 26, 2019. Uppsala University
    https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/07/190726094651.htm
    Summary:
    Soon we will be able to replace fossil fuels with a carbon-neutral product created from solar energy, carbon dioxide and water. Researchers have successfully produced microorganisms that can efficiently produce the alcohol butanol using carbon dioxide and solar energy, without needing to use solar cells.

    Like

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  36. mlp in nc

     /  August 1, 2019

    Just found a SST of 35.8 in the Persian Gulf, as before just west of the Strait of Hormuz.
    I have trouble getting my mind around a lethal ocean temperature.

    Like

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    • eleggua

       /  August 1, 2019

      Ooops. That’s the same Greenland melt vid posted just above.

      Here’s the discussion on Mick West’s Tales From the Rabbit Hole Podcast:

      Like

      Reply
    • eleggua

       /  August 2, 2019

      Sorry, mlp. Didn’t intend for ^that comment to appear as a response to yours.

      This site shows “Persian Gulf water temperature today”.
      https://seatemperature.info/persian-gulf-water-temperature.html

      35.8 isn’t much higher than the recent dailies for a lot that region. It’s roughly 3°F higher than most of the posted highs for the area.

      Like

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      • mlp in nc

         /  August 2, 2019

        Well. since 35C/95F wet bulb in air is fatal within a few hours, it’s reasonable to assume 35.8C/96.44F SST doesn’t give you anywhere near that, and the more widespread 34C/93F SST only some longer.
        The media don’t seem very interested. Maybe few of them are swimmers.

        Like

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        • eleggua

           /  August 2, 2019

          “The media don’t seem very interested.”

          Not yet.

          Only article I could locate re: rising water temps in the Gulf region, this one from January, 2019.

          https://www.thenational.ae/uae/environment/arabian-gulf-in-hot-water-as-sea-temperatures-are-rising-faster-than-expected-1.812345

          “…The Arabian Gulf faces significant changes because of rising sea temperatures, with research showing the world’s oceans are heating up faster than earlier thought.

          Dr Yves Plancherel said the geography of the region meant that its waters would be particularly susceptible to the effects of climate change.

          Research by Chinese and US scientists indicate the world’s oceans are warming about 40 per cent faster than previous estimates from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change suggested…

          …“The consequences in the Gulf could be quite dramatic if you have warming. It’s semi-enclosed,” he said. “Warming is going to largely stay in the basin, so it won’t benefit from the cooling of the Indian Ocean.

          “You’re quite at risk of a threshold situation that will affect the sea life there quite dramatically.”

          The waters off the UAE are already extremely warm, with summer sea temperatures off Dubai and Abu Dhabi averaging about 33°C, while even in winter the average sea temperature is about 21°C.

          The Arabian Gulf’s waters are also set to become saltier as heat increases the rate of evaporation, Dr Plancherel said, and the region’s problem of “hypoxia”, or low water oxygen levels, is likely to become more severe and widespread.

          Last year, researchers reported that the oxygen minimum zone in the Gulf of Oman, which lies between the Gulf of Hormuz and the Arabian Sea, had grown significantly.

          The decline in oxygen levels in this “dead zone” is partly because warmer temperatures force bacteria in the water to use up more oxygen, making life harder for some other marine life.

          …r Plancherel said the region’s governments could help to improve the understanding that researchers have of oceanic warming by funding Deep Argo floats that can dive as deep as 6,000 metres.

          “There’s an opportunity for the countries in the Gulf to take a leadership role in financing these observing systems,” he said.

          The cost would be between $50 million (Dh183.6m) and $100m, Dr Plancherel said.

          “There’s already an international effort, but we are doing it too slowly,” he said. “We really need to speed it up. There’s not much time to do something about this.””


          ‘Argo Program – “Silent sentinels” deliver their 2 millionth snapshot of our changing oceans’

          “In November 2018, a team of international scientists achieved a major milestone when the Argo program delivered its two millionth profile of physical and chemical data from the world’s oceans, quadrupling the number collected by ships over the previous 100 years. “

          Liked by 1 person

  37. wharf rat

     /  August 1, 2019

    Like

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    • eleggua

       /  August 1, 2019

      Good, short video published today. Presents data and graphs on current state of the melt.

      Like

      Reply
  38. eleggua

     /  August 1, 2019

    In case you missed last night’s
    Democratic Party Presidential Debate Game Show Round 2, Part 2,
    here’s the 9+ minute climate change portion:

    Jay Inslee’s got the best perspective on the crisis. Yang’s sensible about the urgency.
    Biden’s a dodo: flightless and extinct. 500,000 charging stations by 2030 ain’t gonna do it.

    Throughout the evening Biden misspoke/misstated on many topics, including this one.
    “We’re responsible for 15% of all the pollution in the country.”
    He is not a suitable candidate for the job he craves.

    Like

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  39. eleggua

     /  August 1, 2019

    Mick West, creator and administrator of the wonderful debunking site, Metabunk, interviews
    Professor David Keith, geoengineering expert. Most of the interview involves debunking “chemtrail” nonsense, though Keith delves into geoengineering quite a bit in the first part of the discussion.

    “Because he’s a well-known expert in the largely theoretical field of geoengineering (deliberately modifying the Earth’s climate) he has become an often demonized target for conspiracy theorists who think that the climate is actually being secretly modified using “chemtrails.”
    We discuss the actual state of Geoengineering research (just starting to do very small scale tests), the plausibility of doing it secretly (almost none), and Professor Keith’s experiences with the chemtrail theorists over the last decade.”

    Like

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    • wharf rat

       /  August 2, 2019

      Like

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      • eleggua

         /  August 2, 2019

        Those damn twitter vids won’t play on my machines. Looked for it elsewhere; no go.
        Thanks for posting, though, of course!

        This Discover Mag article published today includes that same tweet and a sizable chunk of good info on Greenland as well as Arctic sea ice.
        http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/imageo/2019/08/01/10-billion-tons-of-meltwater-pours-off-greenland-in-a-day-but-are-things-as-bad-as-the-twittersphere-says/

        “…if you pay attention to Twitter, it almost seems as if we’ve entered the Arctic Apocalypse. So with this story, I decided to take a deep breath and report as dispassionately as I could on what’s happening.

        I started by getting in touch with Mark Serreze, Director of the National Snow and Ice Data Center — which among other things, publishes daily updates on surface melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet and the extent of Arctic sea ice. I asked him for his overall take on what’s happening. Here’s what he told me:

        “There have always been what one could call ‘heat waves’ in the Arctic,” he said. That’s just part of the natural variability of weather.

        But now that natural variability is happening atop the long-term trend of human-caused warming — which is manifesting more intensely in the Arctic than anywhere else on Earth. As a result, “the heat waves are becoming hotter,” Serreze says.

        And make no mistake: This one is very toasty: Temperatures in Greenland have been running up to 30 degrees above average this week. At the highest point in Greenland, 10,551 feet above sea level, temperatures remained above freezing for 11 hours on Tuesday — an exceedingly unusual occurrence…

        …“We are starting to re-think our position on this,” says Mark Serreze. “The melt rate continues to be rapid. But a new record? It’s unclear, as much depends on the weather conditions through the remainder of summer.”

        Serreze remains somewhat cautious about what September will bring: “My guess is that ice extent at the September minimum will be somewhere in the lowest five that we’ve observed, but where it sits in the record books remains to be seen.”

        Given the heat and melting in Greenland, and the low extent of sea ice coverage, Cavallo summarizes his reaction this way: “It is certainly shaping up to be an interesting summer in the Arctic.”

        That’s putting it mildly.””


        ^^^”…when it comes to the percentage of Greenland’s surface that has experienced melting so far, this is how things looked yesterday compared to the record-setting year of 2012″

        Like

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      • eleggua

         /  August 3, 2019

        Former bridge at that same location collapsed in 2012 after intense glacial melt that summer.

        Like

        Reply
    • nwkilt

       /  August 11, 2019

      Please, please, please let it be BIRTH CONTROL!!!

      Like

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  40. eleggua

     /  August 1, 2019

    Two major Central Pacific Ocean storms currently approaching Hawaii.
    https://www.staradvertiser.com/2019/08/01/breaking-news/high-surf-warning-in-effect-as-erick-flossie-draw-closer-to-hawaii/

    Hurricane Erick is now slightly southeast of the island chain. Tropical Storm Flossie should pass north of the islands within a few daze.

    Like

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  41. eleggua

     /  August 2, 2019

    Fiddling (with the enemy) while Home burns.

    ‘Russia Says Trump Offered To Help Putin Fight Forest Fires In Siberia’
    August 1, 2019
    https://www.npr.org/2019/08/01/747196568/russia-says-trump-offered-to-help-putin-fight-forest-fires-in-siberia

    “President Trump spoke with President Vladimir Putin on Wednesday and offered U.S. help in fighting widespread forest fires raging in parts of Siberia, according to a Kremlin account of the call.

    Putin, in response, expressed his “sincere gratitude” to Trump and said that if necessary, he will accept the offer, the Kremlin said on its website…

    …the White House said Trump “expressed concern over the vast wildfires afflicting Siberia” and that the two leaders “also discussed trade between the two countries.”

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  42. eleggua

     /  August 2, 2019

    Truth or consequences.

    ‘The White House Blocked My Report on Climate Change and National Security’
    Politics intruded on science and intelligence. That’s why I quit my job as an analyst for the State Department.
    By Rod Schoonover
    Dr. Schoonover was a senior analyst in the Bureau of Intelligence and Research at the State Department.
    Jul 30, 2019

    “…the White House blocked the submission of my bureau’s written testimony on the national security implications of climate change to the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. The stated reason was that the scientific foundation of the analysis did not comport with the administration’s position on climate change.

    After an extended exchange between officials at the White House and the State Department, at the 11th hour I was permitted to appear at the hearing and give a five-minute summary of the 11-page testimony. However, Congress was deprived of the full analysis, including the scientific baseline from which it was drawn. Perhaps most important, this written testimony on a critical topic was never entered into the official record.

    The bottom line of written testimony was this: “Climate change will have wide-ranging implications for U.S. national security over the next 20 years.”…

    Decades of scientific measurements have established that global temperatures are increasing and ocean waters are acidifying. These changes produce shifts in a vast number of earth system processes: in the atmosphere, ocean, freshwater, soil, ice masses, permafrost and organisms making up the biosphere. Some effects are well known, like increased frequency and intensity of heat waves and droughts, and rising sea levels. Others are less familiar, like decreasing oceanic oxygen levels and the redistribution of species.

    These events do not arise in isolation but combine with existing social and political conditions and can disrupt societies and nations. They harm people directly or degrade the social, political, economic, agricultural, ecological or infrastructural systems that support them.

    With these environmental changes we should expect disruptions to global water and food security, reduced economic security and weakened livelihoods, worsened human and animal health, and risks to the global supply chain on which the United States and its partners depend. Political instability, heightened tensions over resources, climate-linked humanitarian crises and adverse effects to militaries in some places are likely to increase. Migration will probably increase both within and between nations, with sociopolitical and resource implications already becoming clear…

    Grappling with the implications of climate change and biodiversity loss, the two primary security concerns I’m focused on, is too important to me to wait around for a possible change on these issues in a future administration. We need to better understand and anticipate the challenges facing the nation and its partners. Whatever my next step might be, I believe these issues remain critical, and I will try to continue this work going forward.”

    Like

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  43. Spike

     /  August 3, 2019

    Good to see you back Robert. I have missed the honesty and clarity of vision with which you write about the unfolding catastrophe. Hope the break did you some good.

    Like

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  44. Syd Bridges

     /  August 5, 2019

    And now, to the surprise of few, the preliminary figures from the European Copernicus Climate Change Service indicates that July 2019 is likely to be the hottest month ever recorded. It will have to be confirmed by NASA’s GISSTEMP, but a new record looks likely, surpassing July 2016, but with a much weaker El Nino for a booster.

    See https://www.washingtonpost.com/climate-environment/2019/08/05/heres-how-hottest-month-recorded-history-unfolded-around-globe/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.5d2f616c3b7b&wpisrc=nl_most&wpmm=1

    Like

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    • mlp in nc

       /  August 6, 2019

      Scarcely needs confirmation. Today on Climate Reanalyzer neither northern jet is
      discernable. This can’t be good.

      Like

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  45. eleggua

     /  August 7, 2019

    25% of the Northern Hemisphere is permafrost.
    21-to-25% of the permafrost will thaw at 1.5C of global warming.

    The end is now. The beginning is nigh.

    “…The thawing of the permafrost — along with other changes triggered by global warming — is reshaping this incredibly remote region sometimes called the Kingdom of Winter. It is one of the coldest inhabited places on earth, and huge; Yakutia, if independent, would be the world’s eighth largest country.

    The loss of permafrost deforms the landscape itself, knocking down houses and barns. The migration patterns of animals hunted for centuries are shifting, and severe floods wreak havoc almost every spring.

    The water, washing out already limited dirt roads and rolling corpses from their graves, threatens entire villages with permanent inundation. Waves chew away the less frozen Arctic coastline.

    “People don’t comprehend the scale of this change, and our government is not even thinking about it,” said Aleksandr N. Fedorov, deputy director of the Melnikov Permafrost Institute, a research body in Yakutsk, the regional capital….”

    Like

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  46. eleggua

     /  August 8, 2019

    It is official:

    ‘July Was the Hottest Month in Recorded History’
    August 6, 2019
    https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/july-was-the-hottest-month-in-recorded-history/

    Like

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  47. eleggua

     /  August 9, 2019

    World Of Music And Dance and Climate Chaos

    “Extinction Rebellion has revealed a 300 foot diameter Extinction Symbol crop circle in a field adjacent to WOMAD festival. Striking aerial photographs show the sheer size of the crop circle, the largest representation of the Extinction Symbol ever made. The WOMAD crop circle symbolises ecocide and climate chaos while drawing particular attention to food security issues. The flattened plants send the message that climate chaos ravages our crops, leaving people hungry and desperate, a tragedy only set to worsen.

    Extinction Rebellion Festivals Coordinator Julian Thompson says: “The Extinction Symbol crop circle draws our attention to ecocide, the loss of 75% of insects and catastrophic loss of biodiversity; the overuse of herbicide and pesticide and the havoc climate chaos wreaks on our capacity to grow food. People are already going hungry around the world, even here in the UK, and yet the amount of perfectly good food thrown away every day by our supermarkets is astounding. In the Midwest of the USA, 16 million acres won’t grow wheat this year, due to flooding. This is the reality of our current systems and the Climate and Ecological Crisis we are in. The coming years will see truly cataclysmic changes to our capacity to grow food and that is when we are genuinely looking at societal collapse.” ”

    The end is now. The beginning is nigh.

    Like

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  48. eleggiua

     /  August 9, 2019

    Things are not OK.

    R.I.P. Okjökull Glacier

    “OK the first Icelandic glacier to lose its status as a glacier.
    In the next 200 years, all our glaciers are expected to follow the same path.
    This monument is to acknowledge that we know
    what is happening and what needs to be done.
    Only you know if we did it.

    Ágúst 2019
    415ppm CO2”

    Liked by 1 person

    Reply
  49. wharf rat

     /  August 9, 2019

    Like

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  50. eleggua

     /  August 9, 2019

    Change. No joke.

    “The change has been taking place silently, high above our heads, for the past 40 years, and it has gone unnoticed until now. It makes me wonder what else we don’t yet know about how climate change is altering the global atmospheric circulation.”

    ‘Climate crisis may be increasing jet stream turbulence, study finds ‘
    8 Aug 2019
    https://www.theguardian.com/science/2019/aug/08/climate-crisis-may-be-increasing-jet-stream-turbulence-study-finds

    “…Researchers say previous studies of the speed and location of the fastest part of the north Atlantic jet stream have found only small changes over time, although there are signs it is slowly shifting northward. Experts say the lack of dramatic alterations is because climate change produces competing effects at different altitudes.

    The latest study, however, took a different approach. “Just because the speed isn’t changing, doesn’t mean the jet stream isn’t changing in other ways,” said Prof Paul Williams of the University of Reading, the lead author of the research…

    The aviation industry could well be contributing to the changes Williams and his colleagues found. It currently accounts for about 2% of global CO2 emissions and is one of the fastest-growing polluters. This year is forecast to be another record-breaking year for air travel, with passengers expected to fly a total of 5tn miles (8.1tn km)…”


    You see, you feel, you know.

    Like

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  51. wharf rat

     /  August 10, 2019

    Like

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  52. eleggua

     /  August 10, 2019

    ‘Eat less meat: UN climate change report calls for change to human diet’
    08 August 2019
    https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-02409-7

    “Efforts to curb greenhouse gas-emissions and the impacts of global warming will fall significantly short without drastic changes in global land use, agriculture and human diets, leading researchers warn in a high-level report commissioned by the United Nations.

    The special report on climate and land by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) describes plant-based diets as a major opportunity for mitigating and adapting to climate change ― and includes a policy recommendation to reduce meat consumption…

    …The report states with high confidence that balanced diets featuring plant-based, and sustainably-produced animal-sourced, food “present major opportunities for adaptation and mitigation while generating significant co-benefits in terms of human health”.

    By 2050, dietary changes could free millions of square kilometres of land, and reduce global CO2 emissions by up to eight billion tonnes per year, relative to business as usual, the scientists estimate…

    …About a quarter of the Earth’s land area appears to suffer soil degradation already ― and climate change is expected to make thing worse, particularly in low-lying coastal areas, river deltas, drylands and permafrost areas. Sea level rise is adding to coastal erosion in some regions, the report says.

    Industrialised farming practices are responsible for much of the observed soil erosion and pollution, says Andre Laperrière, the Oxford, UK-based executive director of Global Open Data for Agriculture and Nutrition, an initiative to make relevant scientific information accessible worldwide.

    The report might provide a much-needed, authoritative call to action, he says. “The biggest hurdle we face is to try and teach about half a billion farmers globally to re-work their agricultural model to be carbon sensitive.“”

    Like

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    • eleggua

       /  August 10, 2019

      Cognitive dissonance dissertation.

      ‘The Vegetarians Who Turned Into Butchers’
      Aug. 6, 2019

      Kate Kavanaugh, neo-hipster butcher:
      “After the meat was cut down into several smaller steaks, she wrapped one up, grabbed a couple of tallow cubes molded into the shapes of “Star Wars” characters.
      Before she was a butcher, Ms. Kavanaugh was a strict vegetarian. She stopped eating meat for more than a decade, she said, out of a deep love for animal life and respect for the environment.
      She became a butcher for exactly the same reasons.”

      And now carves the bodies of those animals she deeply loved into toys to be eaten.
      Wow.

      Commenters overwhelmingly oppose these nonsensical notions, dispelling them with facts and sanity.

      Like

      Reply
    • eleggua

       /  August 10, 2019

      Meat, the world’s top destroyer of the environment.

      “The great corporation which employed you lied to you, and lied to the whole country –
      from top to bottom it was nothing but one gigantic lie.”

      Like

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  53. eleggua

     /  August 10, 2019

    ‘A Quarter of Humanity Faces Looming Water Crises’
    Aug 6, 2019

    “…several big, thirsty cities that have faced acute shortages recently, including São Paulo, Brazil; Chennai, India; and Cape Town, which in 2018 narrowly beat what it called Day Zero — the day when all its dams would be dry.

    “We’re likely to see more of these Day Zeros in the future,” said Betsy Otto, who directs the global water program at the World Resources Institute. “The picture is alarming in many places around the world.”

    Climate change heightens the risk. As rainfall becomes more erratic, the water supply becomes less reliable. At the same time, as the days grow hotter, more water evaporates from reservoirs just as demand for water increases…

    Today, among cities with more than 3 million people, World Resources Institute researchers concluded that 33 of them, with a combined population of over 255 million, face extremely high water stress, with repercussions for public health and social unrest.

    By 2030, the number of cities in the extremely high stress category is expected to rise to 45 and include nearly 470 million people…

    … A lot can be done to improve water management, though.

    First, city officials can plug leaks in the water distribution system. Wastewater can be recycled. Rain can be harvested and saved for lean times: lakes and wetlands can be cleaned up and old wells can be restored. And, farmers can switch from water-intensive crops, like rice, and instead grow less-thirsty crops like millet.

    “Water is a local problem and it needs local solutions,” said Priyanka Jamwal, a fellow at the Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment in Bangalore.”

    Like

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  54. eleggua

     /  August 11, 2019

    Fast food meat substitutes: folderal and fodder for “consumers”.
    Cosplay food.

    ‘Can Burger King’s meat-free burger attract the climate conscious?’

    “Chains are jumping on the meat-substitute bandwagon – but some experts say vegetarian options could boost beef sales”
    Sun 11 Aug 2019
    https://www.theguardian.com/business/2019/aug/11/burger-king-impossible-whopper-climate-youth

    “…every employee inside a midtown Manhattan Burger King is wearing an Impossible Whopper shirt. There is an Impossible Whopper-themed photo-booth. Customers can try the beef Whopper and Impossible Whopper side-by-side for $7.

    In this hopeful moment, it is easy to imagine a fast-food future where all the “meat” is plant-based, entire menus are vegetarian, and the environmental footprint of these convenience foods is significantly reduced – helping stop a climate crisis scientists warn we have only 11 years left to tackle.

    …“Early indications are that demand for plant-based proteins will continue to grow,” said Tony Weisman, chief marketing officer with Dunkin’ US. He said the company intended to roll out its new Beyond Sausage sandwich nationally soon.
    Burger King to sell plant-based Impossible Whopper across the US
    Read more

    “Given the importance of environmental sustainability among consumers, and especially younger consumers, indications are that demand for plant-based meats will continue to increase as time goes on,” he added.

    …The Impossible Whopper is the newest incarnation of a soy-based, genetically engineered veggie burger created by the Silicon Valley company Impossible Foods. It is nearly indistinguishable from the beef Whopper, both in taste and nutrition.

    It’s sloppy with wilted lettuce, tomatoes, mayonnaise, ketchup and pickles. It smells enticing, it is even craveable, and as with the real thing, I feel awful after eating it. Not guilty – literally unwell.

    …fast-food options including Beyond Meat and Impossible Foods are neither organic nor particularly healthy.

    The Impossible Whopper meal, which automatically comes with a medium fries and Coke, is a staggering 1,280 calories. There are 34 grams of fat and 1,080 grams of sodium in the sandwich alone. When this was described to a nutritionist with Action on Salt UK, Mhairi Brown, she said: “Oh, my goodness.”

    “It’s difficult to say which one is healthier, because ultimately we know a burger is not a healthy choice,” said Brown.

    Like

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    • eleggua

       /  August 11, 2019

      If it sounds too good to be true, it’s Impossible.

      Long article, especially worth reading if you’re considering eating an impossibly nutritious Impossible Burger either at home or at Burger King.

      ‘The Impossible Burger: Unhealthy and Bad For the Environment?’
      August 2, 2018
      https://ancestral-nutrition.com/impossible-burger-unhealthy-bad-environment/

      “…This is not environmentally friendly. This is not sustainable. This is not health or nutrition. And let me explain why…”

      Like

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  55. wharf rat

     /  August 12, 2019

    From time to time, Rat posts about Eunice Foote, as “Paid for by the Committee To Repeal and Replace Tyndall with An American Woman”

    The Foote Effect

    Some time ago, being defined as about nine years, in his sorely missed Climate Abyss, John Niesen Gammon advocated doing away with the term greenhouse effect, or greenhouse gas, perhaps tongue in cheek, perhaps not

    “Okay, I’m finally convinced.

    I hereby declare the greenhouse effect to be nonexistent.

    There’s not much worse for public knowledge of science than an important but complex phenomenon whose very name evokes a false analogy. Such is the case with the greenhouse effect.”…..

    …Nielsen-Gammon pointed out that there is a long tradition, which he was following, of naming an effect after its discoverer.

    Thus the absorption and scattering of visible and near IR light in the atmosphere should henceforth be known as the Foote Effect or the Foote Gas Effect

    http://rabett.blogspot.com/2019/08/the-foote-effect.html

    Like

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  56. wharf rat

     /  August 12, 2019

    Public Information Statement…CORRECTED
    National Weather Service Fairbanks AK

    800 PM AKDT Sat Aug 10 2019 …Lightning Detected within 300 Miles of North Pole Today… A number of lightning strikes were recorded between 4pm and 6pm today within 300 miles of the North Pole. The lightning strikes occurred near 85 degrees north, 120 degrees east, which is about 700 miles north of the Lena River Delta of Siberia. This lightning was detected by the GLD lightning detection network which is used by the National Weather Service. This is one of the furthest north lightning strikes in Alaska Forecaster memory.

    https://forecast.weather.gov/product.php?site=afg&product=PNS&issuedby=afg

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    • eleggua

       /  August 12, 2019

      Very interesting.

      Like

      Reply
    • eleggua

       /  August 12, 2019

      https://weather.com/news/news/2019-08-11-unusual-lightning-detected-near-north-pole

      “…Lightning does occur each summer north of the Arctic Circle (66.6 degrees north latitude), including occasionally over southern portions of the Arctic Ocean.

      It’s uncertain how many lightning strikes in history have occurred as far north as Saturday’s event, but based on the worldwide lightning climatology map shown below, they are hardly seen in that region of the Arctic.

      Most lightning around the world occurs from the equator into the middle latitudes, as depicted in pink above. This is a region of the world where the warm and unstable conditions needed to form thunderstorms are most often found.

      Notice how the the density of lightning strikes drops off rapidly toward the colder Arctic region in the Northern Hemisphere, as well as the Antarctic region in the Southern Hemisphere.

      Saturday’s lightning strikes near the North Pole were most likely from elevated thunderstorms, which develop when there is a layer of unstable air in the middle portion of the atmosphere. That’s in contrast to how most thunderstorms in the middle latitudes form in summer, with the sun’s heating of the Earth’s surface making the atmosphere grow unstable at lower altitudes.”


      “Average annual lightning flashes per square kilometer around the world (1995-2013). Gray and purple indicate locations with the fewest flashes per year, and bright pink depicts locations that see the most lightning.” NASA

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